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Birth and Early Childhood in Kentucky (1809-1816)
Four New Reverse Designs Commemorate the 200th Anniversary of Lincoln's Birth
The familiar portrait of Lincoln on the obverse or "heads" side of the penny, has been there, essentially unchanged, for nearly 100 years. 2009 will be the 200th anniversary of Lincoln's birth, and the 100th anniversary of the beloved Lincoln Cent. To celebrate these milestones, the U.S. Mint released a special series of new penny designs for 2009. The new penny designs, which will appear on the reverse,... or "tails" side, depict four different periods in the life of venerated U.S. President Abraham Lincoln. The obverse remains unchanged. The new pennies were released one at a time, each about three months apart. The first penny was issued on Feb. 12, 2009, the 200th Anniversary of Lincoln's birth.
Edited by: James Bucki
Birth and Early Childhood in Kentucky (1809-1816) - The first of the four new penny designs for the 2009 penny reverse features Abraham Lincoln's life as a young boy in Kentucky, where he was born in a log cabin. U.S. Mint Artistic Infusion Program (AIP) Master Designer Richard Masters created this realistic design, which is definitely different from my grade school textbooks' depictions of Lincoln's cabin. In the textbooks, Lincoln's cabin always seemed so neat and clean and perfectly built. I think this design really captures the reality of what a hand-built, early 19th century log cabin on the American frontier really looked like. The design was sculpted for the coin dies by U.S. Mint Sculptor-Engraver Jim Licaretz.
Be aware that there are some die varieties that have been found on the reverse. Look for some doubling on the ends of the logs on the corner of the cabin. The doubling is minute and you will need at least a 5X-10X magnifying glass to see the doubling on the ends of the logs.Continue to 2 of 6 below.
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Lincoln's Formative Years in Indiana (1816-1830)
Lincoln's Formative Years in Indiana (1816-1830) - The second of the new penny designs pays tribute to Abraham Lincoln's youth in Indiana, where he worked as a rail splitter for the railroad. In the image, designed and sculpted by United States Mint Sculptor-Engraver Charles Vickers, Lincoln is depicted reading during a break from what must have been very hard work! Can you imagine how much force you'd have to swing that type of mallet with, in order to split that fairly thick log... the way it is depicted being done? I love the graceful portrait of the young Lincoln, with his tall, lanky frame relaxing as he caresses the book in his arms.
This coin has the most die varieties of any coin in the series. Most of the die varieties involved Lincoln's hand that is holding the book. Some of the more minor varieties make it look like there is a shadow by Lincoln's fingers. Other more dramatic varieties look like there are additional fingers on Lincoln's hands. The more dramatic die varieties and a slight value to the premium of the coin's value.Continue to 3 of 6 below.
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Lincoln's Professional Life in Illinois (1830-1861)
Lincoln's Professional Life in Illinois (1830-1861) - One thing about this new series of penny designs that will be good for Americans is their educational value. For instance, if you'd asked me in 2008 where Abraham Lincoln was born, I'd have told you, "Illinois. Everyone knows that Lincoln is from Illinois." As I've learned from following these new pennies, though, four different states can lay a solid claim on important stages of Lincoln's life.
Lincoln's... professional life is the part that happened in Illinois. The building depicted in the penny design is the old Illinois state capitol in Springfield. Lincoln gave a seminal speech there on June 16, 1858, upon his nomination for the U.S. Senate on the Republican ticket, a race he ultimately lost. The speech referred to as his House Divided speech, isn't as well known as the Gettysburg Address, but it showed that Lincoln had remarkable moral courage, and represented a turning point in how the intellectual elite perceived Lincoln.
The design for this coin was created by AIP Master Designer Joel Iskowitz, and sculpted by U.S. Mint Sculptor-Engraver Don Everhart.Continue to 4 of 6 below.
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Lincoln's Presidency in Washington, DC (1861-1865)
Lincoln's Presidency in Washington, DC (1861-1865) - The depiction of the U.S. Capitol dome under construction was a somewhat controversial choice for this coin design. There are many images that can be used to portray the quintessential "Lincoln as President" archetype, but the half-finished Capitol dome certainly isn't one of them. In the end, however, this design was chosen as being the most emblematic of the challenges Lincoln faced overall during his presidency. The U.S. was... torn apart by the Civil War, and its underlying moral struggle regarding slavery and Lincoln sought to build consensus and compromise and attempt to heal the nation after this terrible sundering. The construction of the U.S. Capitol dome, which was completed during Lincoln's first term, stands as a fine symbol of everything Lincoln stood for. The depiction on the coin is pretty much the same as the Capitol building actually appeared during Lincoln's Inauguration as President on March 4, 1861 (see next photo.)
The design for this penny was created by AIP Master Designer Susan Gamble, and sculpted by U.S. Mint Sculptor-Engraver Joseph Menna.Continue to 5 of 6 below.
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The U.S. Capitol During Lincoln's Inauguration
If you were wondering where Susan Gamble got the inspiration for her 2009 Lincoln Cent design, this photo will give you a hint. This amazing image, from the Library of Congress, was taken the day Abraham Lincoln was inaugurated for his first term of office, on March 4, 1861. It is very important to the U.S. Mint that coin designs are as historically accurate as possible, and great care is taken to make sure the littlest details are as correct as we can know them. Fortunately, Lincoln's... presidency happened shortly after photography became widespread and inexpensive enough that many important things were documented. The next image in this gallery shows how two different 2009 penny artists depicted Lincoln's face.Continue to 6 of 6 below.
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Two Views of Lincoln's Face
As this image gallery demonstrates, the new 2009 penny designs are intended to show four different phases of Abraham Lincoln's life. Lincoln himself is only depicted in two of the designs, the second and third. I've shown the whole design on the top, to give perspective, with an enlargement of Lincoln's face below each design. The one on the left, from Lincoln's formative years, was drawn by Charles Vickers. The one on the right was drawn by Joel Iskowitz.
The third coin in this... series is my favorite, by far. When you look at the image of Lincoln, you can see that Iskowitz has somehow magically conveyed the hopes and dreams of a confident, but perhaps still uncertain young man. Lincoln stands with his arm out to command your attention without demanding it, while the hand behind his back shows an artful combination of openness and a hint of insecurity. We see Lincoln as the human being he was, with foibles and fears and hopes and dreams, rather than as the stern-faced, bearded icon that we know from our currency. In the enlargement of Lincoln's face, especially in the eyes, Iskowitz has captured the emotion that Lincoln felt when he gave his "House Divided" speech at the Illinois Statehouse in 1858. Too bad this wonderful face is so teeny on the finished coin that we'll hardly see the beauty here.
Contrast Iskowitz's "fiery young orator" Lincoln with Charles Vickers' portrait (left image) of Lincoln reading as a youth. Vickers tells his story in the overall body language, rather than in the details of the face; Lincoln is depicted as a sensitive young man, given more to books and studying than the physical toil of log-splitting. Where are the muscles a manual laborer doing this work would have? Vickers' Lincoln is clearly just passing through the log-splitting job, taking a break, as it were, from Lincoln's real life work, which was primarily intellectual rather than physical. Although the Mint artists have very little, if any, say in what overall designs they must create, I would like to have seen Lincoln as the Mississippi riverboat hand or frontier shopkeeper, rather than splitting logs, a role that I think ill-defines him compared to the other jobs he held in his youth.