The perennial flowering common yarrow (Achillea millefolium) goes by many names—gordaldo, nosebleed plant, and thousand leaf—to name a few. In the southwestern U.S., it's often referred to as a plumajillo, the Spanish word for "little feather" because of the plant's leaf shape and texture. They can grow to reach over 3 feet tall during their growing season. The plant features flower stalks that are nearly four times its foliage height and fern-like feathery green leaves. The best time to plant this herbaceous perennial with golden-hued flowers is in the fall. It has a delicate beauty but can also be considered an aggressive weed. It's native to temperate regions of Asia and Europe's northern hemisphere and was introduced to North America during the colonial era.
|Botanical Name||Achillea millefolium|
|Common Name||Yarrow, common yarrow, gordaldo, nosebleed plant, sanguinary, milfoil, soldier's woundwort, thousand-leaf, thousand-seal|
|Plant Type||Herbaceous flowering perennial|
|Mature Size||2 to 3 feet tall, 2 to 3 feet wide|
|Sun Exposure||Full sun|
|Soil Type||Sandy, loamy, clay, well-draining|
|Soil pH||4 to 8 (acidic, neutral, and alkaline)|
|Bloom Time||June to September|
|Flower Color||White, yellow, pink, red|
|Hardiness Zones||3 to 9|
|Native Area||Northern hemisphere of Asia, Europe, and North America|
|Toxicity||Toxic to cats, dogs, and horses; potential minor skin irritation to humans|
Common Yarrow Care
Common yarrow is drought-tolerant and will grow well in poor soil. It's an ideal plant for xeriscaping in desert environments. Yarrow is most often sold as a plant, although it's easy to grow from seed. To add it to your garden, loosen the soil in the bed and dig a hole slightly deeper than the plant's root ball. Add compost; mix it in well. Make sure you use well-draining soil as yarrow cannot tolerate wet soil. Place the plant so that the top of the root ball is flush with the soil line, and fill in the hole with soil. Space the plants 1 to 2 feet apart so that they can establish easily. Water well.
Common yarrow doesn't need much attention, but it can be susceptible to botrytis mold and powdery mildew, both of which will appear as a white powder on the leaves. Treat it with an appropriate fungicide. Yarrow can also be affected by spittlebugs, which look like a speck of spit on plants. If the number of bugs becomes overwhelming, hose them off and use an insecticide applied under high pressure.
Yarrow prefers full sunlight, but it can grow in partial shade. If the plant doesn't get enough sunlight, the long, thin stems can become floppy and need staking.
Common yarrow grows best in dry to medium, well-drained soils, whether sandy clay or sandy loams. It can tolerate poor garden soils. In fact, soils that are too nutrient-rich will encourage aggressive growth, so avoid fertilizer.
Once established, common yarrow is drought-tolerant, but if the garden receives less than 1 inch of rain in any given week, give the plant extra water.
Temperature and Humidity
Yarrow can tolerate hot, humid days, and drought.
Yarrow plants are low-maintenance. An annual side-dressing with compost should be enough. A soil that is too nutrient-rich may encourage the invasive spread of the yarrow plant.
Types of Common Yarrow
- 'Apple Blossom' syn. 'Apfelblute': A cross between A. millefolium and A. taygetea; features purple-pinkish flowers that are 2 to 3 inches wide
- 'Cerise Queen': Grows deep pink flowers and dark green foliage; reaches 1 to 3 feet tall at maturity
- 'Little Moonshine': Compact variety that only grows to 9 to 12 inches tall; features bright yellow flowers and silvery-green leaves
- 'New Vintage Red': Grows to 12 to 15 inches tall with vibrant red flowers and bright green leaves
- 'Paprika': A Galaxy hybrid that grows brick-red flowers that are 2 to 3 inches wide with blooms that eventually fade to shades of pink
Yarrow needs pruning regularly. Deadheading will keep the flowers in near-continual bloom. Plant stems can begin to flop if grown in a hot, humid climate. Cut back the plant stems after blooming to reduce plant height and avoid flopping. Yarrow can become invasive. Pruning/deadheading will keep the plant in check by preventing self-sowing.
Propagating Common Yarrow
Yarrow grows easily from seed. In ideal growing conditions, yarrow can spread rapidly and sometimes aggressively. Divide every two to three years, as needed, to maintain the vitality of the planting.
How to Grow Common Yarrow From Seed
Start yarrow from seeds indoors about eight to 10 weeks before the last predicted frost. Sow the seeds in seed starting mix and put the plant in a warm, sunny location. Yarrow needs light to germinate, so sow the seeds on top of the mix--do not cover with soil. Press seeds firmly into the mix. Bottom heat helps speed germination. In about 10 to 14 days, the seeds will begin to germinate. Harden off seedlings outside before transplanting in the garden after all danger of frost has passed.
Potting and Repotting Yarrow
Common yarrow grows tall, up to 40 inches. To accommodate this growth, get a large potting container when planting the seeds or transplanting the seedlings.
In late autumn, as the temperature starts to drop dramatically, before the first frost, you can help yarrow maintain its vitality by pruning back to its basal leaves or foliage at the base of the stem. The basal leaves will protect the yarrow plant during the winter.
“Common Yarrow: Achillea Millefolium (Asterales: Asteraceae): Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States.” Invasiveplantatlas.Org