Attracting Butterflies and Hummingbirds to Your Gardens

  • 01 of 12

    Sweet Scents, Nectar and Abundance

    How to Design a Butterfly Garden
    How to Design a Butterfly Garden. Marie Iannotti

    You don't actually need to go out of your way to attract butterflies to your garden. If you plant enough flowers, they will find them. However, there are a few tricks you can apply to your garden design to make your garden border more tempting. Butterflies are attracted to bright colors and butterflies and hummingbirds both like high nectar plants, like the ones featured in this garden design.

    Another consideration is providing plants for all stages of the butterfly's short life. For...MORE instance, adding a water feature, like a bird bath, and rocks for sunning on. You'll find more information on this aspect of butterfly gardening at Attracting Butterflies to Your Garden

    The design illustrated here is for a curved border, 30' long x 10' wide. Most of the flowers selected are suitable for a range of hardiness zones, but alternatives are also listed. Keep in mind that local nurseries usually stock varieties that are especially adapted to your area.

     

    Different species of butterflies prefer different plants, but you can be sure of attracting your share of butterflies with the plants in this garden design. The border is meant for full sun, which will also help in attracting butterflies, since their wings need to be warmed, in order for them to be able to fly.

    Most of the plants are suitable for a range of hardiness zones, but alternatives are listed. Specifics about each plant follow on successive pages.

     

    1. Asclepias tuberosa - Butterfly Weed
    2. Panicum virgatum (Switch Grass) 'Shenandoah'
    3. Scabiosa columbaria (Pincushion Flower) 'Pink Mist'
    4. Coreopsis verticillata (Tickseed) 'Zagreb'
    5. Heliopsis helianthoides (False Sunflower) 'Karat'
    6. Veronica spicata 'Sunny Border Blue'
    7. Echinacea purpurea (Purple Coneflower)
    8. Asiatic Lily
    9. Agastache x 'Ava' (Hummingbird Mint)
    10. Eupatorium maculatum (Joe-Pye Weed ) 'Gateway'
    11. Glandularia canadensis (Rose Verbena) 'Homestead Purple'
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  • 02 of 12

    Well, They Don't Call It That for Nothing

    Butterfly Weed - Butterfly Garden Plants
    Butterfly Weed - Butterfly Garden Plants. Marie Iannotti

    Butterfly weed is high in nectar and attracts butterflies and pollinating bees. You'll probably even get some swallowtail caterpillars snacking on the leaves, since Asclepias is in the milkweed family, a host plant for the swallowtail butterfly. But Asclepias tuberosa is much better behaved than common milkweed.

    Butterfly weed is one of the last plants to emerge in the spring, so be patient. It has a long taproot and doesn't like to be moved, once it's established. But you get a hand full...MORE of volunteers each year, to keep your garden fresh or to give to friends.

    Asclepias is extremely drought tolerant, because of its taproot. It also doesn't really need deadheading to keep blooming. You might want to deadhead to keep it tidy, but like its cousin the milkweed, butterfly weed will develop attractive green seed pods that are nice in arrangements.

    Asclepias tuberosa - Butterfly Weed (USDA Zones 3 - 9, 2-3' x 2', Orange Blooms: Repeat Bloomer)

    Alternatives:

    • Asclepias tuberosa 'Gay Butterflies' (USDA Zones 4 - 9, 2-3' x 2', Orange, Red & Yellow Blooms: Repeat Bloomer)

       

    • Kniphofia spp. - Red Hot Poker (USDA Zones 5 - 9, 3-4' x 3', Orange, Red & Yellow Blooms: Repeat Bloomer)
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  • 03 of 12

    The Wilds of the Butterfly Garden

    Panicum virgatum 'Shenandoah' (Switch Grass)
    Panicum virgatum 'Shenandoah' (Switch Grass). Marie Iannotti

    Butterflies, like most flying creatures, look for sheltered places to rest now and then. A tall grass in your butterfly garden would be just the ticker.

    Switchgrasses are airy clumps of thinned leaved grasses that sway in the breeze. They are tolerant of just about any type of soil and can become a nuisance self-seeding if you don't stay ahead of them. But most are valued for their tight clumping habit, airy nature and the hazy flower and seed heads that form late in the season. Many, like...MORE 'Shenandoah' have red fall color. Both Shenandoah's leaves and plumes turn a burgundy red.

    Panicum virgatum (Switch Grass) 'Shenandoah' - (USDA Zones 4 - 9, 4' x 3', Red Foliage in Fall)

    Alternatives:

    • Miscanthus sinensis (Maiden Hair Grass) 'Gracillimus' - USDA Zones 5 - 9, 5-6' x 3', Green Foliage with Copper-Red Plumes)

       

    • Pennisetum setaceum (Purple Fountain Grass) 'Rubrum' - (USDA Zones 9 - 11, 2-3' x 2-3', Maroon Foliage)
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  • 04 of 12

    A Delicate Pink Pin Cushion

    Butterfly Gardening - Scabiosa (Pin Cushion Flower)
    Butterfly Gardening - Scabiosa (Pin Cushion Flower). Marie Iannotti

    Scabiosa. Such an awful name for such a pretty little flower. The common name, pincushion flower, is far more descriptive. The button-like flowers are held high above the plant on sturdy stems. There is a variety called 'Butterfly Blue' that is very pretty too, but not so hardy as 'Pink Mist'. However, none of the Scabiosa are particularly long-lived and may need replacing after a few seasons.

    Deadheading keeps the plants blooming and it's very easy to do because of the long flower stalks.

    Scabiosa...MORE columbaria (Pincushion Flower) 'Pink Mist' (USDA Zones 3 - 9, 24" x 18", Pink Blooms: Repeat Bloomer) Tends to be sort lived.

    Alternatives:

    • Dalea purpureum - Purple Prairie Clover (USDA Zones 3 - 9, 18" x 18" Re-Violet Blooms: Repeat Bloomer) A legume, tolerant of most soil.

       

    • Achillea 'Appleblossom' (USDA Zones 3 - 9, 24" x 18", Soft Pink Blooms: Repeat Bloomer)
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  • 05 of 12

    Doing Double Duty as an Edging Plant and a Lure

    Coreopsis verticillata 'Zabreb'
    Coreopsis verticillata 'Zabreb'. Marie Iannotti

    The threadleaf foliage of coreopsis verticillata makes a nice edging plant for this garden of soft colors. While Coreopsis 'Zagreb' is a bolder yellow than the popular 'Moonbeam', it's a much hardier plant and it likes to spread out. Butterflies look for large swaths of color. They want to know it's worth their time to fly down and land.

    The threadleaf coreopsis are very easy growing. They set an abundance of flower buds along their wispy flower stems. It's easiest to let the plants bloom...MORE themselves out and then shear back the whole plant by 1/3, rather than trying to deadhead. The plants will rally and rebloom in a matter of a couple of weeks.

    Coreopsis verticillata (Tickseed) 'Zagreb' (USDA Zones 3 - 9, 24" x 18", Gold Blooms: Repeat Bloomer)

    Alternatives:

    • Coreopsis verticillata (Tickseed) 'Creme Brulee' (USDA Zones 4 - 8, 20" x 18", Gold Blooms: Repeat Bloomer)

       

    • Coreopsis verticillata (Tickseed) 'Moonbeam' (USDA Zones 4 - 9, 20" x 18", Pale Yellow Blooms: Repeat Bloomer)
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  • 06 of 12

    A False Sunflower that Fools Everyone

    Heliopsis helianthoides (False Sunflower)
    Heliopsis helianthoides (False Sunflower). Marie Iannotti

    Annual sunflowers get all the attention. There's no denying they can be show stoppers, but the annual sunflowers and their cousins, the false sunflowers, Heliopsis, are not slouches either.

    Heliopsis are smaller, clumping plants with yellow, daisy-like flowers that bloom in great abundance and for up to 3 months. Deadheading improves the plant's overall appearance but doesn't seem to matter much for a number of blooms you get. The major maintenance required with Heliopsis helianthoides is...MORE periodic division every 3-5 years, to keep the clump in control ad blooming freely. They can also tend to flop, especially after a rain, and staking keeps the clump tighter.

    Heliopsis helianthoides (False Sunflower) 'Karat' - Oxeye Sunflower (USDA Zones 3 - 9, 3-4' x 2-3', Yellow Blooms: Repeat Bloomer)

    Alternatives:

    • Helianthus salicifolius - Willowleaf Sunflower (USDA Zones 3 - 9, 3-5' x 3-4', Yellow Blooms: Mid- to Late Summer)

       

    • Rudbeckia fulgida (Black-Eyed Susan, Orange Coneflower) 'Goldsturm' - (USDA Zones 3 - 9, 2' x 2', Yellow Blooms: Repeat Bloomer)
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  • 07 of 12

    'Sunny Border Blue' About Sums it Up

    Veronica 'Sunny Border Blue'
    Veronica 'Sunny Border Blue'. Marie Iannotti

    What garden should be without some spiky purple/blues? Veronicas have the nice feature of dense, compact foliage offset by tall flower spikes that start blooming from the bottom and work their way up to the tips. This makes the long period of bloom stretch even longer. And it makes deadheading quite easy too.

    The recent cultivars of Veronica, like 'Sunny Border Blue' and 'Goodness Grows', are worth seeking out for their wide adaptability, tolerance to drought, pest resistant...MORE foliage and, of course, their ability to repeat bloom throughout the growing season.

    Veronica 'Sunny Border Blue' (USDA Zones 3 - 8, 24" x 18", Violet-Blue Blooms: Repeat Bloomer

    Alternatives:

    • Salvia nemorosa (Meadow Sage) 'May Night' (USDA Zones 4 - 9, 18" x 18", Deep Purple Blooms: Repeat Bloomer)

       

    • Lavandula augustifolia (English Lavender) 'Buena Vista' (USDA Zones 5 -10, 24" x 18", Fragrant, Purple & Violet Blooms: Mid- & Late Summer)
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  • 08 of 12

    Looking for a Butterfly Magnet?

    Echinecea (Purple Coneflower)
    Echinecea (Purple Coneflower). Marie Iannotti

    Echinacea deserves a spot in your garden just because it's a great performer. But it is also a butterfly favorite and you'll find them sitting on the petals, taking in the sun and nectar. There's been a surge in coneflower breeding recently, 'White Swan', 'Harvest Gold', 'Orange Meadowbrite' and 'Sunset'... making the term 'Purple' Coneflower almost obsolete. But having other options doesn't mean the old standbys should be discarded and a...MORE butterfly garden is a perfect spot for some of the proven performers of the species.

    Echinacea purpurea - Purple Coneflower (USDA Zones 2 - 10, 3-4' x 3', Magenta Blooms: Repeat Bloomer)

    Alternatives:

    • Echinacea tennesseensis - Tennessee Coneflower (USDA Zones 3 - 9, 18" x 18", Magenta Blooms: Repeat Bloomer)
    • Echinacea pallida - Pale or Tall Coneflower (USDA Zones 5 - 9, 3-4' x 18", Magenta Blooms: Repeat Bloomer)

       

    Both of these have thinner petals than purpurea and the tall coneflower is more swept-back.

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  • 09 of 12

    What the Elegant Butterfly Will Be Wearing

    Growing Lilies (Asiatic Lily)
    Growing Lilies (Asiatic Lily). Marie Iannotti

    As if you need an excuse to plant lilies. Daylilies (Hemerocallis) have become so ubiquitous that true lilies are more exotic than ever. But they're still just as easy to grow as ever. Give them a well-draining spot with at least a half day of sun and you'll be fighting the butterflies for bouquets. It's always wise to plant extra lilies, because they are hard to resist as cut flowers. But leave some for the butterflies. You're not the only one who can't resist the fragrance.

    Lilium (Asiatic...MORE Lily) 'Red Velvet' - (USDA Zones 3 - 11, 3-4' x 1-2', Scarlet Blooms: June - July

    Alternatives:

    • Zauschneria arizonica - Hardy Hummingbird Trumpet (USDA Zones 5 - 9, 3' x 2', Red-Orange Blooms: Repeat Bloomer) Loves heat, but not clay.

       

    • Monarda didyma (Bee Balm)'Jacob Kline' - (USDA Zones 3 - 8, 3-4' x 3', Red Blooms: July - August)
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  • 10 of 12

    Agastache is as Varied in Appearance as in Pronunciation

    Agastache (Hummingbird Mint)
    Agastache (Hummingbird Mint). Marie Iannotti

    Most gardeners know Agastache as anise hyssop, the spiky, blue-flowered plant that smells like anise or licorice. Anise hyssop is a versatile plant that will attract plenty of butterflies in its own right, but there is more variety out there in the world of Agastache. 'Ava' belongs to a group of Agastache commonly called the Hummingbird Mints. The pinkish red flowers start blooming in late summer and stay blooming for weeks. They even seem to get more intense in color as the season...MORE progresses. The Agastache pictured here was labeled something like 'Root Beer', but I'm told by David Salman, the plantsman who bred Agastache x 'Ava', that it is actually Agastache rupestris (Licorice Mint Hyssop), a wildflower species from AZ and northern Mexico. It's odd to think a nursery in NY is selling Southwestern wildflowers, but I'm happy to report it is thriving here and is always a showstopper on garden tours.

    Agastache are hardy, drought tolerant, low maintenance plants, but they need to get acclimated before they really take off. They like a rich soil and seem to over winter better if you don't cut them back until spring. Once established, you'll become an addict and want every new Agastache that comes on the market. Once the butterflies are done with them, you can cut them for dried flowers, as well.

    Agastache x 'Ava' (USDA Zones 5 - 10, 4' x 2', Rose & Red Blooms: Repeat Bloomer)

    Alternatives:

    • Centranthus ruber (Jupiter's Beard) 'Coccineus' (USDA Zones 4 - 9, 30" x 30", Rose-Red Blooms: Repeat Bloomer)

       

    • Knautia macedonica (USDA Zones 5 - 10, 2' x 2', Dark Purplish-Red Blooms: Repeat Bloomer) Note: 6.6 to 8.0 (neutral - alkaline soil) Knautia is a tall, floppy plants, but will weave between other flowers easily. Gets large fast.

    Note: David Salman's catalog High Country Gardens is still the best place to shop for Agastache. (If you can't make it to his Sante Fe Greenhouses, in New Mexico.)

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  • 11 of 12

    Another Magnificent Weed - Joe Pye

    Eupatorium (Joe Pye Weed)
    Eupatorium (Joe Pye Weed). Marie Iannotti

    Native plants are often mistaken for weeds. As the saying goes, "You don't appreciate what you don't pay for". Joe-Pye has been dressing up roadsides for years. We've been driving past it without a second thought for just as long. But the butterflies notice and if you turned your head as you drove past, you'd see them flitting about.

    Joe-Pye Weed can be weedy. The species grows very tall and spreads eagerly. But it's been tamed and there are several excellent cultivars out there now. Perhaps...MORE the best and most widely grown is 'Gateway'. Gateway has been scaled down to garden size, but it still makes an impact. This late season bloomer will carry your butterfly garden well into fall.

    The one catch with growing Eupatorium is that prefers a moist environment. However, if you can keep it well watered the first season, it can handle a little less than ideal conditions in future years.

    Eupatorium maculatum (Joe Pye Weed) 'Gateway' (USDA Zones 4 - 8, 6' x 6', Mauve Blooms: August - Sept)

    Alternatives:

    • Buddleia davidii (Butterfly Bush) 'Potter's Purple' (USDA Zones 5 - 9, 4-6' x 3-4', Purple Blooms: Repeat Bloomer)

       

      Salvia uliginosa - Bog Salvia (USDA Zones 6 - 10, 4-6' x 4', Light Blue Blooms: Repeat Bloomer)

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  • 12 of 12

    Glandularia canadensis 'Homestead Purple'

    Rose Verbena (Glandularia canadensis)
    Rose Verbena (Glandularia canadensis). Marie Iannotti

    Glandularia. There's another pretty, evocative plant name. Rose Verbena tells you why gardeners came up with common names in the first place. Despite the tag 'canadensis', cold climate gardeners may see this plant offered as an annual and an inexpensive one at that. But it's worth a shot at overwintering outdoors. Who knows.

    Rose Verbena starts blooming early in the summer and keeps going if you deadhead it. It also spreads out nicely, making it a good choice for edging. It has kind of a...MORE cascading habit, which has made it popular for growing in pots.

    If Glandularia canadensis doesn't ring a bell with too many of you, it's because this plant is so easy to propagate that plant sellers can push it each year as a bedding plant. But it deserves a spot in the front of your butterfly garden, because the mounded clusters of flowers not only give the butterflies a place to land, they offer multiply nectar sources.

    Glandularia canadensis (Rose Verbena) 'Homestead Purple' (USDA Zones 6 - 9, 12" x 9", Lilac Blooms: Repeat Bloomer)

    Alternatives:

    • Eupatorium coelestinum (Hardy Ageratum)'Wayside' - (USDA Zones 3 - 8, 15" x 20", Lavender-Blue Blooms: Repeat Bloomer)
    • Nepeta (Catmint) 'Blue Wonder' - (USDA Zones 3 - 8, 12" x 18", Lavender Blooms: June & August)