Why would you not want an extraction or exhaust fan in your bathroom? Because they remove bad smells, bathroom fans promote family harmony. Following Dad after his bathroom visit is far less horrible when a good extraction fan has been running for a few minutes.
However, you may be surprised to learn that bathroom code has a different take on the matter. Yes, building code does address the issue of moving air from the bathroom to the outside, but it offers alternatives other than installation of an exhaust fan.
Poorly Ventilated Spaces Come With a Tremendous Price
Bathroom venting fans are about more than just eliminating noxious odors. Bad odors are annoying but are hardly life-threatening, and they do not impact the integrity of the building structure at all.
Bath exhaust fans are about keeping your house in top shape by moving water out of your bathroom. Water is everywhere in a bathroom: splashing on the floor, beading up on the walls, dripping down the mirror. And there is one other invisible place where you will find water in the bathroom: in the air.
Venting fans pull moisture-laden air out of that small space, slowing or altogether preventing it from condensing on walls, on the ceiling, or worst of all, in the ceiling. It can be an ugly sight to crawl above a poorly ventilated bathroom's ceiling. You might find mounds of black-moldy blown-in insulation, as well as joists and rafters weakened from years of moisture abuse.
When moisture spreads in a home, one thing quickly leads to another. Moist environments attract termites. When these cellulose-hungry insects begin feeding on your home's wood framework, you need to act quickly. Costs spiral from there as you put the home under a pest control contract and undergo extensive remodeling work to shore up weakened studs.
Given this, it would seem to follow that building code requires bathroom fans and that permitting departments would strictly enforce this.
Building Code Requirements: Openable Window or Exhaust Fan
Surprisingly, bathroom fans are not required by most building codes. All municipalities have different requirements, but a majority do not have a hard line on requiring exhaust fans. Ventilation in bathrooms is required, but it can be from a window or fan, your choice:
If you install a window in the bathroom, it must be at least 3 square feet in area. This window only needs to be able to open halfway. This means that the total open window space would be 1.5 square feet.
Windows that open can provide highly effective ventilation in bathrooms that have no shower or tub. With no bathing facilities, far less moist air is produced. While powder rooms can benefit from exhaust fans, they can usually operate just as well with a window that opens.
Exhaust Fan Requirements
Installing a bathroom fan obviates the need to install a window. The bathroom fan should pull out at least 50 cubic feet per minute (cfm). Because windows provide light as well as ventilation, if you go the fan-only route you need to install artificial lighting. This should already be a given, as electrical code requires that habitable rooms be supplied with a switch-controlled light.
The exhaust fan must route to the exterior. It cannot move air to a crawlspace or attic. While this may seem obvious, homeowners have been known to direct the vent into either of these locations. While this is not smart, it is understandable: attics and crawlspaces are often the shortest possible route for the vent. Routing vertically out of the roof or routing through the upper part of the wall (to the exterior) are time-consuming, invasive projects.
The end of the vent run should also have a grille or screen to prevent vermin from entering your home.
Bathroom Venting Code Citation
Section R303 of the International Residential Code discusses light and ventilation regulations. Building code is a model code that each community can adopt and adapt according to its own needs. So, you will need to check with your own city or county planning and permitting department to find out code requirements regarding bathroom fans.