If you are looking for a plant that boasts dramatic, vibrant flowers, you may want to consider tropical hibiscus. The trumpet-shaped blooms are typically 3 to 8 inches in diameter with dramatic protruding stamens.
Native to Asia, tropical hibiscus plants produce flowers constantly, but each blossom only lasts one day. The shrub is fast-growing and can add up to 24 inches per year, eventually reaching heights of up 15 feet when growing under the ideal conditions. In colder climates, they are often planted as container specimens that are either replanted annually or brought indoors during the cold months. Start new plants in spring, whether in the ground or in containers.
|Botanical Name||Hibiscus rosa-sinensis|
|Common Name||Tropical hibiscus, Chinese hibiscus, China rose|
|Plant Type||Evergreen shrub|
|Mature Size||4–10 ft. tall, 5–8 ft. wide|
|Sun Exposure||Full sun, partial shade|
|Sun Type||Moist but well-drained|
|Soil pH||Neutral to acidic|
|Bloom Time||Summer to fall in containers; year-round outdoors in tropical climates|
|Flower Color||White, red, pink, orange, yellow, peach, purple|
|Hardiness Zones||9–11 (USDA)|
Watch Now: How to Grow and Care for a Hibiscus Plant
Tropical Hibiscus Care
No matter where you live, there's probably a way for to you enjoy a hibiscus plant, at least for part of the year. In warmer climates, tropical hibiscus plants are grown as perennial garden plants and used as shrubs for hedges and screens. Meanwhile, in colder climates, they're often planted in large containers as patio or deck specimens.
Tropical hibiscus plants are relatively easy to care for, so long as they get enough light and water. With dozens of colors of flowers to choose from, the plants will reward your garden and home with days and days of vibrant blooms reminiscent of a vacation in the tropics.
While you may assume that a tropical plant like the hibiscus loves the sun, it's more nuanced than that. In northern climates, your hibiscus plants will probably be happiest in full sun. However, if you live somewhere that's more hot and dry, you're better off putting your plant in a location that gets partial shade. If your outdoor plant is consistently producing hibiscus flowers, it is happy, so keep doing what you're doing. If your plant is not producing buds and flowers, try moving it into an area that has more sunlight.
If you're growing your hibiscus plant in a container, use a well-drained potting mix as the soil, preferably one formulated for tropical plants. Outdoors, your soil should have lots of organic matter. The soil in both grow locations should be well-draining, to help avoid the risk of root rot.
Tropical hibiscus is a thirsty plant and will thrive and produce blossoms only if it is given enough water. Depending on the heat, wind, and humidity in your environment, your plant may need to be watered daily, or even twice a day in extremely dry conditions. Typically, tropical hibiscus plants thrive best with one to two inches of water per week. If your hibiscus is dropping leaves, or you're seeing yellowing leaves at the top of the plant, chances are it's not getting enough water. Likewise, if your hibiscus has yellowing leaves in the middle or toward the bottom of the plant, it's probably drowning in too much water.
Temperature and Humidity
The tropical hibiscus plant prefers average temperatures between 55 and 70 degrees Fahrenheit. Prolonged heat over 85 degrees Fahrenheit can result in dropping buds and leaves. Additionally, the plant can be killed by even a few nights below 50 degrees Fahrenheit, so plan to move it inside if cold weather is in the forecast.
When you buy a potted hibiscus, it likely has a slow-release fertilizer mixed into the soil, so it will not require additional feeding in the first few months. After that, regular feeding with a diluted fish emulsion fertilizer will keep it blooming vigorously.
Tropical Hibiscus Varieties
- Hibiscus rosa-sinensis 'Bonjour': This varietal constantly blooms with a mixture of red and pink flowers. It grows 4 to 6 feet in height.
- Hibiscus sinensis 'Magic Moment': This plant varietal blasts 10-inch flowers in hues of peach, orange, pink, and light purple, on plants growing up to 8 feet tall.
- Hibiscus rosa-sinensis 'Cajun Cocktail': This unique varietal has lovely variegated blooms that are around 6 inches wide, with no two blooms exactly alike.
The best time for pruning tropical hibiscus is in the fall for both garden and container plants. Pruning will help keep your tropical hibiscus flowering as buds form on the new growth that has been stimulated by pruning, and removing some branches can let in some much-needed light.
Give any hibiscus plants that are potted in containers a hard pruning before bringing them indoors for the winter season. You should also try to remove all insects currently residing on the plant using neem oil, a liquid detergent, or by spraying the plant forcefully with water.
Propagating Tropical Hibiscus
You can propagate your tropical hibiscus from soft-stem cuttings taken in late spring after the plant has begun active growth for the season. It's good to use a rooting hormone, and make sure to keep the cuttings out of direct sunlight until they are actively growing. It may help to bag the cuttings to preserve moisture and retain heat while they establish roots.
Potting and Repotting Tropical Hibiscus
For consistent flower production in container plantings, make sure to avoid very deep containers, which can cause the plant to spend its energy on root development at the expense of producing flowers. The ideal pot shape is one that is quite wide but relatively shallow.
You will likely need to repot your plant every one to two years. Look for signs that it is dropping leaves, appearing stressed, or hasn't been growing well. Regular repotting helps ensure that the soil provides sufficient nutrition for the plant.
If you live in a northern climate, it is possible to overwinter hibiscus indoors, as long as you can provide two to three hours of direct sunlight daily. Your plant will need less water in the winter, but dry indoor heat can be hard on tropical plants, so you will need frequent shallow waterings, as well as daily misting (if the air is dry). If you see any buds form on the plant, remove them—you don't want your hibiscus to flower in the winter. In the spring, cut the plant back and put it outside once the nighttime temperatures are consistently above 50 degrees Fahrenheit.
Tropical hibiscus is generally free of pests and diseases, but you may encounter spider mites and aphids, especially if you bring the plant indoors. Hibiscus plants can also develop bacterial diseases due to transmission from insects, rain, and fog—symptoms of such can include leaf wilt, dwarfing, stem rot, and distortion of leaves.