Chickens are not native to Latin America - they are an import from Europe (though there is a debate about the possibility of chickens coming to South American from Polynesia). Nowadays Latin America is quite well known for certain popular chicken dishes, such as arroz con pollo and Peruvian-style pollo a la brasa. Peruvian roasted chicken is popular for a reason - the unique combination of spices gives the meat exceptional flavor. The dish has an interesting history: it was made famous by a... couple of Swiss expats in the 1950's at their restaurant La Granja Azul (which is still a popular Lima restaurant). They designed and patented the mechanical spit that roasts multiple chickens simultaneously (el rotombo).
The word in Spanish for hen is gallina, and gallo is rooster. However when you are speaking of chicken meat (as in to eat), you typically use the word pollo. But a few recipes still have the word gallina or gallo - such as sancocho de gallina (hen soup). It used to be that people distinguished between the flavors and cooking uses of hens versus roosters.
That's just the tip of the iceberg, however - see the list of recipes below for more interesting South American ways to prepare and enjoy chicken.
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Peruvian Stewed Chicken in Cilantro Sauce - Seco de Pollo
Arroz con Pollo Verde - Green Chicken with Rice
Pollo Arvejado - Chicken and Peas
Pollo en Escabeche - Chicken with Onions and Capers
Chicken with Okra - Frango con Quiabo e Angu
Peruvian Spicy Creamed Chicken - Aji de Gallina
Easy Slow Cooker Stewed Chicken
Chicken and Rice a la Valenciana - Arroz con Pollo Nicaraguense
Chicken Soup with Root Vegetables - Sancocho de Gallina
Slow Cooker Chicken & Potatoes "A La Brasa" - Pollo en Olla... de Coccion Lenta
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