Coast leucothoe has a pleasing array of seasonal outfits, from the young bright green leaves in early spring, to the white flowers tinged with pink in late spring through early summer, to its autumn shift to deeper bronze and purple. Its manageable size makes it a strong foundation plant in the border. The creamy white bell-like flowers add texture and interest to this handsome shrub that is perfect for shady gardens. The flowers are slightly fragrant, with a light honey-like scent that attracts pollinators like butterflies and bees. The shrub should be planted during its dormant period in the late winter or early spring. It has a moderate growth rate and can thrive in almost any type of soil.
The plant is toxic to humans, and toxic to pets.
|Botanical Name||Leucothoe axillaris|
|Common Name||Coast leucothoe, coastal doghobble, fetterbush|
|Mature Size||4 ft. tall, 6 ft. wide|
|Soil Type||Moist but well-drained|
|Soil pH||Neutral, acidic|
|Flower Color||White, pink|
|Hardiness Zones||6-9 (USDA)|
|Native Areas||North America|
|Toxicity||Toxic to humans, toxic to pets|
Coast Leucothoe Care
If placed in a location protected from wind and given a layer of winter mulch, this plant can be hardy to USDA Zone 5, but it tends to perform better in zone 6 and above. The plant has a sturdy root system and can perform well on a slope or in a rock garden as long as the soil is not too loose or gravelly. Other than not liking too much sun, extreme heat, or harsh wind, this plant is quite hardy and resilient.
While this shrub can grow in full sun, coast leucothoe prefers partial shade. Full sun and hot temperatures can dry out the leaves and flowers, so if you do plant this in a partial sun location, morning sun is preferable to afternoon sun.
Coast leucothoe does best in a humus-rich, loamy, organic, lime-free soil that is slightly acidic, but can tolerate soils from neutral to fairly acidic. Good drainage is essential. Adding material that will help improve moisture retention and drainage will help this shrub perform best: This includes peat moss, coffee grounds, composted manure, and a bit of sand.
This shrub needs regular watering to perform best, and extra water during a drought season, as it is not drought-tolerant. During its bloom season, water deeply at the base so that flowers get enough moisture.
Temperature and Humidity
Leucothoe doesn't like extremes in temperature, hot or cold. It can wilt or dry out in the hot afternoon sun. It does like ample water and may even enjoy some misting from your sprinkler or hose on a hot balmy day to keep its leaves moist and happy.
In the early spring, before the new growth starts, a apply complete fertilizer. Do not fertilize the plant after mid-summer, as that will stimulate new growth that is prone to winter damage. If your soil tends to be alkaline, you can also use a fertilizer for acid-loving plants but make sure to measure the soil pH before.
Types of Leucothoe
Popular varieties of leucothoe include:
- Leucothoe axillaris ‘Curly Red' has even more dramatic color range than the species, emerging in spring with orange-red new growth, and taking on shades of scarlet red in summer and purple in autumn. Small red berries appear soon after the flowers, attracting songbirds.
- Leucothoe fontanesiana ‘Rainbow’ is a cultivar of another native leucothoe species called drooping laurel. It can grow up to 5 feet tall and wide. This colorful plant has interesting green-yellow leaves, maroon edging, and red stems and buds.
- Leucothoe fontanesiana ‘Zeblid’ is often sold as 'Scarletta'. The deep red leaves of this low-growing shrub turn a striking scarlet-purple in the spring and a lovely bronze-red shade in the fall and winter.
The only regular pruning that is necessary should be done in the spring after the plant has finished blooming. Shorten and thin out broken or errant branches. Shearing is optional; it takes away from the plant's natural arching habit.
Propagating Coast Leucothoe
This shrub can be propagated from cuttings taken in early summer (June):
- Using a sharp knife or pruners, cut off 5-inch long, strong stem from the new growth.
- Fill a 4-inch pot with potting mix. Dip the cut end in rooting hormone. Make a hole in the soil with a pencil or stick for each cutting and insert the cuttings in the holes. Water well until the soil is evenly moist.
- Place the pots in a fairly warm location but out of direct sun. Keep the soil moist. The cutting should form roots in 10 to 12 weeks.
How to Grow Coast Leucothoe From Seed
Coast leucothoe seeds are not commonly available from seed companies. Most coast leucothoes are cultivars and if you collect the seeds from the plant, you won't get a plant that is true to the parent. Therefore it is not recommended to grow it from seed but propagate it from cuttings instead.
Potting and Repotting Coast Leucothoe
Coast leucothoe makes a good container plant. As it needs excellent drainage, select a lightweight potting mix and a pot with good drainage holes. Once the plant outgrows its container, which is indicated by roots reaching the sides of the container, or growing out of the drainage holes, replant it in a larger container in the spring.
The plant is susceptible to damage from extreme cold or winter winds. This can be avoided by planting it near a structure, or within an array of larger shrubs two or three feet apart. Protect the roots by applying a thick layer of mulch around the base.
Common Pests and Plant Diseases
Leucothoe does not have many disease and pest problems. Insufficient soil drainage can cause root rot, which primarily manifests itself though stunted growth and yellowing and wilted leaves. Another possible disease is leaf spot, starting with dark spots on leaves and, in severe cases (usually in cool, wet springs, or caused by overhead watering), can lead to girdling of the plant stems and can kill them.
How to Get Coast Leucothoe to Bloom
Failure to bloom can be due to too much sunlight or hot, drying winds, both of which dry out the flowers.
Common Problems with Coast Leucothoe
Being a native plant, coast leucothoe does not have any common problems when planted within its natural climate range.
Is leucothoe deer-resistant?
Coast leucothoe is seldom severely damaged by deer.
Is leucothoe axillaris evergreen?
The leaves of this evergreen plant have a leathery texture, and their deep green takes on tones of purple and bronze in the fall.
What are good companion plants for coast leucothoe?
Because of its compact but dense growth habit, as well as its mid-season bloom time, it can be an effective underplanting for larger, earlier, or later blooming shrubs that also flourish in partial shade, like azaleas, rhododendrons, oakleaf hydrangeas, weigelas, and/or rose of Sharon.