Here's a simple table showing equivalences between common units of culinary measurement to help you easily convert between them.
|1 teaspoon||1/3 tablespoon||1/6 fluid ounce|
|1 tablespoon||3 teaspoons||1/2 fluid ounce|
|1/8 cup||2 tablespoons||1 fluid ounce|
|¼ cup||4 tablespoons||2 fluid ounces|
|1/3 cup||¼ cup plus 4 teaspoons||2¾ fluid ounces|
|½ cup||8 tablespoons||4 fluid ounces|
|1 cup||½ pint||8 fluid ounces|
|1 pint||2 cups||16 fluid ounces|
|1 quart||4 cups||32 fluid ounces|
|1 liter||1 quart plus ¼ cup||4¼ cups|
|1 gallon||4 quarts||16 cups|
Note that the measurements above are volume measurements, not weight. This is why I've taken care to indicate fluid ounces. Generally speaking, when I specify a unit of weight in a recipe, I do so in grams, which is a metric unit.
The long-forsaken (at least in the U.S.) metric system spares us any such confusion, and most digital scales let you set your units to be grams or ounces and easily switch between them. Here's the scale I use.
Probably the most useful kitchen measurement to remember is that a tablespoon is equal to three teaspoons. You'll need to know this anytime you're halving a recipe and discover that you don't have a half-tablespoon on your measuring spoon set.
Couple of things you can do in that case. First is to know that half a tablespoon is 1½ teaspoons. And second is to get yourself a set of measuring spoons, like this one, that does have a half-tablespoon on it.
Another good frame of reference is to keep in mind that (again, in the U.S.) a standard can or bottle of beer is 12 ounces, or 1½ cups.
That's true for canned soda as well. The standard single serving soda bottle (the size you get when you buy a bottle of soda from a machine) is 20 ounces, or 2½ cups.
As for pints, you usually only see something described in pints if it's a dairy product. Milk, cream, cottage cheese, ice cream, half and half and so on are typically packaged in pints.
Certain deli salads, like macaroni salad, potato salad and so on, are packaged in pints. And of course when ordering a beer, a pint is the standard unit.
In recipes, however, even if there's an ingredient where two cups of it are required, I will never specify a pint. I'll just say two cups.
You might also want to check out this article on how to scale a recipe.