Sequoia trees are the largest trees in the world. The most famous members of the family are the coastal redwood (Sequoia sempervires) and the giant sequoia (Sequoiadenron giganteum) of California, but neither of those trees is commonly planted for landscape purposes. However, the dawn redwood (Metasequoia glyptostroboides) does have a role in landscapes. Although it is too big for most private gardens, it can be a wonderful addition in public parks, as a boulevard tree, or on large estates or farms. It does quite well in damp soils, so it can be a good choice for large rain garden locations.
Dawn redwood grows quickly into a large tree with a pyramidal shape and base that forms a wide flare. The bark becomes deeply fissured as the tree matures. The feathery, fine-textured needles are opposite and approximately 1/2 inch long. They turn shades of red and brown in autumn before falling; this is one of the few deciduous conifers. The fruit is a 1-inch female oval cone.
|Botanical Name||Metasequoia glyptostroboides|
|Common Name||Dawn redwood|
|Plant Type||Deciduous conifer tree|
|Mature Size||75 to 100 feet|
|Sun Exposure||Full sun|
|Soil Type||Loamy, well-drained soil|
|Soil pH||Acidic; ideal pH is about 4.5|
|Hardiness Zones||4 through 8 (USDA)|
|Native Area||Wet lower slopes and river valleys of central and western China|
How to Grow Dawn Redwood
Plant this tree in acidic to neutral soil that stays consistently moist—or where a water source for irrigation is near at hand. Dawn redwood will not do well in dry soil, and it needs full sun to grow its best. Choose a location with plenty of empty space surrounding the tree, as this huge specimen will need the space.
This redwood needs full sun to reach its mature height.
The dawn redwood does not do well if grown in alkaline or dry soils. If your spot is somewhat alkaline, there are methods to make your soil acidic, though you may need to repeat this treatment, and the difficulty of changing the pH increases if the soil is quite alkaline.
Ideally, this tree should be planted not far from a water source to make irrigation easier. It can tolerate loamy, waterlogged soil well. Provide at least 1 inch of water weekly to the entire area under the branch canopy, which can be quite a large area. Large trees will absorb this quickly; water whenever the soil becomes dry to the touch.
Temperature and Humidity
This plant does well throughout the conditions of USDA hardiness zones 4 to 8 and is especially good where it receives cool humidity.
This tree generally does not require feeding provided it has been planted in appropriately humusy soil. In more barren soils, apply an iron-rich fertilizer into the soil around the tree once each year.
Propagating Dawn Redwood
Dawn redwood can be propagated from hardwood cuttings. Because the plant is very fast-growing, propagated trees can become contributing landscape specimens within a few years. If you take cuttings in early spring, you will be able to plant the saplings by fall.
- Fill a 1-gallon nursery container with sand up to within 2 inches of the top. Run water through the container for 5 minutes to rinse it thoroughly.
- Cut a 6-inch long shoot from a side branch on the tree. An ideal cutting will have a stem about 1/4-inch thick. Angle the cut end at 45-degrees, just below a leaf node. Scrape off a segment of bark about 1/2 inch long and 1/4 inch wide near the cut end of the branch, but take care not to damage the leaf node.
- Coat the cut end and the scraped area with acid rooting powder. Insert the branch, cut-side-down, into the pot of sand, burying it to about half its length. Place the pot in a sheltered outdoor area, and keep the sand constantly moist. Placing the pot on a heated mat may speed up the rooting process.
- Test for roots after 1 month, by tugging on the branch to see if roots are holding it in place. It may take 2 or even 3 months for anchoring roots to develop. When roots have developed, transplant the cutting into a 1-gallon nursery container filled with a mixture of equal parts loam, sand, and compost.
- Water the plant with 2 inches of water each week for the rest of the season. After the tree drops its foliage in fall, plant it in the garden.
Comparison With Bald Cypress
Dawn redwood is often confused with common bald cypress (Taxodium distichum). The needles on dawn redwood are opposite, meaning they are positioned directly across from each other on the stem, while bald cypress needles are alternate (staggered).
Varieties of Dawn Redwood
A very popular cultivar is 'Gold Rush' (Metasequoia glyptostroboides 'Gold Rush'), which has golden-yellow foliage and a narrow habit. it grows 50 feet high and 20 feet wide, making it a more manageable tree for moderate landscape sites.
Dawn redwood naturally forms into a pyramidal shape, so little pruning is needed other than the customary removal of dead, diseased, and damaged branches. When the tree is young, use a long-handled pruner or pruning saw. Make the cuts at a 45-degree angle to the trunk or main branch. Dawn redwoods will grow quickly and will soon require professional trimming when pruning is necessary.
Given that the dawn redwood has existed for many millions of years, this is a remarkable trouble-free tree. It can be susceptible to frost damage, as it grows until late in the season and may be caught by early chills. Try to find a spot that can offer some shelter from the elements, if possible—especially if you live in the northern end of its hardiness range.
Japanese beetles and spider mites can cause problems with this tree, but the damage is usually cosmetic and never life-threatening.