Every fixture and appliance in your home that dispenses water can be rated based on the number of gallons per minute (GPM) that pass through it. These rates vary widely, depending on the age of the fixture and how water-efficiently it has been designed.
Knowing--and controlling--these GPM rates is the first step in controlling your water bill costs.
The problem is that few homeowners have any sense of how much water all of their various services are using.
Typical Rates For Common Appliances and Services
Let's take a look at some average ranges of GPM for typical household fixtures and appliances. In some cases, GPM is not the appropriate figure for the type of service, and I have noted the rating change.
For instance, washing machines do run for prescribed periods of time. But those periods have intermittent on-off cycles. Thus, it is more practical to phrase washing machine GPM in terms of gallons per load; in this case, 18-50 gallons per load.
|Service||GPM or As Noted|
|Showerhead||2.5 - 7|
|Bathtub||18-36 per tub|
|Washing Machine||18-50 per load|
|Dishwasher||15 per load|
|Toilet||Typically 1.6 per flush but up to 3.5|
|Swimming Pool||10,000 per oval pool|
|Hot Tub||475 per tub|
How To Determine GPM--Without Fancy Meters or Devices
You can test out your faucet's GPM output easily in either of two ways.
The One Gallon Method
This is the easier and more reliable method of determining GPM.
- Place a one-gallon sized container beneath the faucet.
- Turn faucet at full capacity. Start timer.
- When water crests the top of a container, stop timing.
- Round figure up or down to nearest "5." So, if the timer reads 17 seconds, you would round up to 20 seconds.
- Divide 60 by that number. In the previous example, 60 divided by 20 is 3.
- The resultant number is the GPM used. The faucet in our example uses 3 GPM.
The 15 Second Method
- Place a large container such as a 5-gallon bucket (similar to those "Homer" Buckets found at Home Depot) beneath the faucet.
- Start a stopwatch and run the water at full capacity for exactly 15 seconds.
- With a gallon-sized container, measure the amount and use an online unit conversion tool if necessary to convert to gallons, and then multiply this figure by 4. Ideally, the resulting figure should be closer to 2.2 GPM than 3 GPM.
How To Limit Your Water Usage
Considering that the average person uses anywhere from 50-100 gallons of water per day, there are plenty of opportunities to reduce that figure:
- Install aerators on faucets.
- Remove old, inefficient toilet and replace with modern 1.6 GPF toilet, such as the readily available and inexpensive Kohler Highline.
- Consider removing luxury items such as swimming pools, fountains, garden ponds, and hot tubs.
- Purchase a low-flow showerhead.
- Replace old appliances like clothes washers and dishwashers with new ENERGY STAR rated appliances.
- Repair leaks right now.
- Be conservative: take shorter showers, shut the water off while brushing your teeth, fill the sink with water while washing dishes instead of running the faucet, etc..