How far apart should you space drywall screws and how many screws should you place in a sheet of drywall?
If you want to start an argument with a group of drywall pros, just ask about drywall screw spacing. Everyone has their own opinion and each of these opinions might be, in its own way, correct. To muddy the waters even more, recommendations from drywall manufacturers and local building codes may run counter to the advice from people who handle drywall on a daily basis. However, in general, space screws a maximum of 16 apart on walls, 12 inches apart on ceilings, and at least 3/8 of an inch from the ends and edges of panels.
Edge: Any of the four outer edges of a sheet of drywall. Screws should be placed about 1/2-inch to 3/8-inch away from the very edge of the drywall sheet.
Field: Any part of the drywall that is not an edge; the large central part of the drywall sheet.
Lippage: A flooring term that refers to the trip hazard when one tile edge is higher than an adjoining tile. With drywall, it means a variation or protrusion between the panels.
This guide covers the general consensus about drywall screw spacing and the number of screws per 1/2-inch drywall on framing members that are 16 inches on-center. Introducing adhesive between the studs and the drywall sheets—a common practice in the building trades—further affects screw placement, reducing the overall quantity needed per sheet of drywall.
|Drywall Screw Spacing Guide|
|Section of Drywall||Number / Distance|
|Number of Screws to Use Per Sheet of Drywall
|Drywall Screw Spacing for Wall: Edges||8 inches|
|Drywall Screw Spacing for the Wall: Field
|Drywall Screw Spacing for Ceilings: Edges||7 to 8 inches|
|Drywall Screw Spacing for Ceilings: Field||12 inches|
How Many Screws Per Sheet of Drywall
Use about 32 drywall screws per sheet of 4-foot by 8-foot drywall installed horizontally on a wall. This total is comprised of four screws on the five middle studs and six screws on each of the two sides.
Local building codes vary, so always check that your intended screw pattern is up to code before beginning work.
How to Calculate
The easy way to calculate how many drywall screws to buy is to buy one screw per square foot of drywall installed.
A more accurate way to calculate this (in case you are using half sheets or extra-large sheets) is to divide the wall square footage by 32 to arrive at the number of full sheets required. Then, multiply the number of sheets by 32 (the number of screws needed per sheet).
Example: You are installing drywall in a bedroom that has 320 square feet of wall space. Dividing 320 by 32 produces 10. Thus, you will need to purchase 10 sheets of drywall to fit that space. Multiply those 10 sheets by 32 to arrive at 320, the number of drywall screws you must purchase for that room.
Drywall Screw Spacing for Wall Edges
Edges: About 8 inches apart
With drywall edges, the aim is to create a continuous seam so that you can effectively tape and mud the edge. In this case, continuous means reducing lippage between the panels.
When one panel protrudes farther than its neighbor, the finishing process becomes difficult to do correctly when the panel joints are butted together.
So the cure is usually to tightly space screws along the edges. Does this mean that more screws are better? In a sense, yes. But that is only part of the story. Spacing screws too closely on the edges can cause the edges to crumble. While finishing can fix the occasional chipped or gouged edge, you want the hanging process to be as perfect as possible in order to reduce those post-process fixes.
Drywall Screw Spacing for the Wall Field
Field: About 16 inches apart
The field of the drywall is the inner area of each sheet. It is everything but the edges. The field is considered a more stable area. Both the International Residential Code (IRC) and USG, the manufacturer of Sheetrock, note that the recommended maximum field screw spacing for wall drywall is 16 inches. Some builders like to space fasteners tighter than that, so they go down to 12 inches.
Drywall Screw Spacing for Ceilings
Horizontal (ceiling) placement creates far more stress on drywall and on drywall screws than vertical (wall) placement. The entire weight of the sheet is now carried by upside-down screws.
Edges: 7 or 8 inches
Industry professionals often recommend 8-inch edge placement, which is the same as for wall edges. Others like to reduce that number to 7 inches.
Field: 12 inches
Both IRC and USG recommend that ceiling field spacing should be no greater than 12 inches apart.
Best Drywall Screw Patterns
Screw distances, for the most part, determine the pattern. However, for edge screws, you may wish to try to set up your distances so that screws on adjoining panels are staggered on a shared stud. This reduces the possibility of having two crumbled drywall edges in the same spot.
Always make sure that screws are spaced equally down a line. Field screws do not benefit by being staggered. It is your choice as to whether you stagger them or keep them running even with each other. Some drywall installers and contractors believe staggered field screws help better distribute weight loads. Other pros think that lining up field screws in rows is structurally better because it mimics the effect of having a framing member in that position.
When Adhesive Is Involved, Reduce Placement
Construction adhesive can be used on studs and joists in conjunction with (but not as a replacement for) drywall screws. Running a bead of glue on the stud or joist prior to screwing on the panel exponentially increases strength between the panels and framing members.
Generally, when using screws and glue, screws can be placed at twice the distance as with screws only. This is not recommended for do-it-yourselfers because, unless you are experienced with drywall, there is a high likelihood that you may need to readjust a sheet or even reinstall it. Once the glue is binding the panel to the joist or stud, it is impossible to remove without damaging the drywall, requiring total replacement.