Body Mass Index
Obesity is almost universally defined by body mass index, or BMI. BMI is used to predict the risk of heart disease and other chronic diseases. The higher the number, the greater the risk. You are considered overweight if your BMI is between 25-29, and obese if it’s 30 and above. Although BMI is based on weight and height, it doesn’t distinguish fat from muscle. An athlete may have a relatively high BMI simply because muscle is heavier than fat.
BMI is not necessarily a good indicator of risk in seniors, as weight loss is as likely to be caused by a reduction in muscle and bone mass as by a reduction in fat. Moreover, research published in the August 19th 2006 Lancet, which analyzed 40 studies involving 250,000 people, showed that those with a low BMI had a higher risk of heart attack than those with high BMI.
Waist to Hip Ratio
So perhaps a better measure of body fat is our waist-to-hip ratio, which takes into account body shape, where being pear-shaped is healthier than being apple-shaped. Abdominal fat, or visceral fat, is considered to be the most dangerous type of fat since it lies deeper in the body than subcutaneous fat (fat stored beneath the skin), surrounding vital organs like the heart and liver, putting us at even greater risk of heart disease, insulin resistance and diabetes. Far from being stored passively, visceral fat produces chemicals and hormones that can interfere with the way our organs function.
The Fat Within
Even if you lack the tell-tale belly fat, you still might not be as healthy as you think. Looking slim is one thing, being healthy is quite another. Research in the U.K. suggests that being a normal weight or even thin doesn’t mean all is well. U.K. scientists have created fat maps of nearly 800 people using MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) machines.
Close to half the women and more than half the men with normal BMI scores had excessive levels of internal fat deposited around the heart and liver, and streaked through under-used muscles—much like a well-marbled steak.
Doctors surmise that diet alone is not enough to protect our bodies from disease. While dieting may help us look better in a bathing suit, it could also cause our bodies to change the way it stores fat. Those who turned out to have excess fat on the inside tended to be sedentary and generally ate poorly—though not always in excess.
Body Volume Index
With BMI and even waist-to-hip ratio falling short, expect to hear more about the Body Volume Index, or BVI, created by UK-based Select Research, and used in the Body Benchmark Study. This study plans to scan more than 20,000 volunteers in the U.K. and U.S. over two years, using a white-light body scanner to create three-dimensional images showing fat and muscle distribution, to determine relative risk of disease. This way, whether you’re overweight, normal weight or even underweight, doctors can see who’s fat and who’s not.
What You Can Do To Avoid Being Fat on the Inside
- Eat a diet low in saturated fat, and avoid artificial trans fats
- Choose lean cuts of meat and poultry
- Limit total fat intake, and choose unsaturated fats such as olive oil, walnuts, and flaxseeds
- Eat fish at least twice a week
- Choose whole grains, legumes, and plenty of fruits and vegetables, preferably organic
- Control portion sizes—two slices of pizza, not the whole pie
- Drink plenty of water
- Get moving—walk, run, bike, chase the kids, swim—whatever you can live with