From spring to fall, fuchsias produce dozens of brightly colored dangling, teardrop-shaped, single or double flowers from trailing stems, and they do so in the kind of shady conditions where most plants struggle. Fuchsias are a fabulous staple for hanging baskets with their elegant, drooping flowers hanging down like so many crystals on a fancy chandelier. Whether planting a fuchsia in outdoor containers or directly in the garden, wait until the weather is consistently above 50 degrees Fahrenheit all night before planting—these plants are very sensitive to cold. They have a moderate growth rate of one to two feet in a year.
A welcome benefit to growing fuchsia is their attraction to hummingbirds; install a hanging basket filled with fuchsia and keep watch for hummingbirds to arrive.
|Botanical Name||Fuchsia (Group)|
|Plant Type||Shrub, annual|
|Mature Size||1 to 2 ft. tall, with a similar spread|
|Sun Exposure||Partial shade|
|Soil Type||Moist but well-drained|
|Soil pH||Neutral to acidic|
|Bloom Time||Spring, summer, fall|
|Flower Color||Red, pink, white, violet, purple|
|Hardiness Zones||10 thru 11|
|Native Area||Caribbean, South America|
The Fuchsia genus contains more than 100 woody shrubs and trees, but the familiar garden fuchsia widely available in garden centers are mostly hybrids ideal for hanging baskets and other containers. While these plants can be perennial garden plants in warm climates, fuchsias are usually grown as outdoor container plants, either planted as annuals and discarded as the weather turns cold or brought indoors and nursed in bright light and controlled conditions over the winter.
Though slightly fussy about moisture and temperature, fuchsias are still considered an easy plant to grow in container gardens. Most will thrive in part shade to full shade. They don't like to be too hot, and they especially hate dry heat. With the right watering regimen and humidity levels, these plants become fairly easy to care for.
These plants thrive in part shade to deep shade conditions. When growing indoors, they enjoy a bit more light—bright indirect light rather than direct sunlight.
Fuchsia plants prefer consistently moist (but not soggy) soil with a good ratio of organic matter. At the same time, the soil should be well-draining. For in-ground plants, amending with peat moss or compost before planting is a good idea. Container plants do fine in an ordinary peat-based potting mix, provided the pot has good drainage.
Fuchsias like to be moist but not soggy. They thrive in humidity, so if you live somewhere dry, they are a little more challenging to grow and keep hydrated.
Temperature and Humidity
Fuchsias are happiest with temperatures between 55 and 80 degrees Fahrenheit, though some heat-tolerant cultivars will keep their blooms up to 90 degrees Fahrenheit. There are also a few shrub-like varieties that are hardy in freezing temperatures.
Fuchsias thrive in humidity, so if you live in a dry climate, you might have to mist your plants to keep them sufficiently moist. Keeping these plants happy indoors through the dry months of winter can be challenging because you'll need to run a humidifier to keep the space from becoming overly dry.
During the blooming season, fuchsias have a huge appetite, so you have to feed them regularly with diluted liquid fertilizer. A combination of fish emulsion and seaweed can work well.
Types of Fuchsia
The fuchsia cultivars most often used for garden containers are divided into those that have upright growth habits, which are best for large containers and those with trailing habits, which are best for hanging baskets. Many dozens of different cultivars are available, and your choice depends on what you prefer for flower color and growth habits. Consider these good choices:
- 'Swingtime' is a trailing variety with ruffled white inner petals surrounded by bright red outer sepals.
- 'Army Nurse' is a shrubby, upright variety with purple flower petals surrounded by red sepals. It works well in large pots or as a garden plant.
- 'Rapunzel' is a trailing variety with purple and pinkish-white flowers. Its stems can trail as much as two feet.
- 'Phyllis' is an upright variety, with deep red petals surrounded by lighter rose-red sepals.
Regular pruning can keep a fuchsia plant vibrant with blooms. It's also okay to prune back drastically. It will rebound nonetheless and be better for it. For trailing fuchsia, remove thin or brittle growth at any time. Bushy perennial fuchsia would benefit from a light trim in the early fall and spring to clean up any dead stems.
Fuchsia plants are easiest to propagate through stem cuttings taken in the spring.
- Cut off a two- to four-inch segment of the stem tip, cutting just above the third pair of leaves.
- Remove the bottom leaves and dip the end of the cutting in rooting hormone.
- Plant the cutting into a tray or pot filled with a seed-starter mix or a blend of sand, perlite, and peat moss.
- Cover the pot with loose, clear plastic and place it in a warm location.
- Roots should develop in three to four weeks, and at this time, you can remove the cover.
- When new leaf growth is obvious on the cutting, you can repot the fuchsia in a larger container and move it outdoors.
How to Grow Fuchsia From Seed
In the early spring, mix peat moss, potting soil, and vermiculite in an appropriate container for indoor seedlings. Spread the seeds across the mixture, press them down lightly, and cover them with a thin layer of potting soil. Cover the containers with clear, loose plastic and give them bright yet indirect light. Temperatures should be a consistent 75 degrees Fahrenheit. After the seeds sprout, remove the plastic cover for a few hours each day to let the seedlings grow hardy in lower humidity. When they have grown their first set of real leaves, they are ready to plant.
Potting and Repotting
Choose a 12- to-16-inch pot, depending on the size of the plant. You want a container one size larger than what it resided in at the nursery. Or, if you're combining smaller plants into one container, two or three specimen plants from four-inch pots can live comfortably in a 10- or 12-inch pot. Here are tips on repotting fuchsia:
- Susceptible to root rot, fuchsia requires a fast-draining potting soil and very good drainage, so make sure that containers have adequate drainage holes and potting medium drains well
- To avoid losing soil through drainage holes when you water, place some plastic screening over the holes first before filling the container with soil.
- Allow space between the top of the container and the soil line. Don't fill the pot to the rim with soil.
Many gardeners discard their potted fuchsia plants as winter approaches. Some gardeners try to keep potted plants growing indoors over the winter, but growing fuchsia requires a humid environment to be successful. Another strategy is simply to cut them back to a few inches and place them in a dark, dry corner for the winter. Water only enough to keep the soil from becoming bone dry. In the spring, bring them back outdoors, where they usually recover.
Fuchsia plants are susceptible to aphids, spider mites, and whiteflies. These can be especially troublesome when you bring plants indoors for the winter. Insecticidal soaps are the best option for controlling these insects.
How to Get Fuchsia to Bloom
Remember that fuchsia flowers on only new growth. The moment a flower begins to fade, pinch it back to allow for new growth. In most cases, you'll be rewarded with a new, vibrant flower in a matter of weeks. Fuchsia can rebloom in a single season if you keep on top of pinching back the flowers when necessary. If you don't see new flowers within six weeks of pinching back, cut that stem back even further to the first strong node and allow it more time to grow.
How long can a fuchsia plant live?
That depends on the variety. Some are perennials that can come back year after year, while others are planted as annuals. Fuchsias grown as shrubs can live for several years with the proper care.
Can fuchsia grow indoors?
It is possible to grow them indoors and it is suggested as a way to overwinter plants you hope to keep going into the following season. However, keep in mind that they need plenty of indirect light at the proper temperature and humidity levels, which might make growing them inside a bit challenging.
How fast does fuchsia grow?
These plants have a growth rate of one to two feet per year. However, keep in mind that you'll be pinching back the stems to create more blossoms, so it's unlikely your overall plant will grow that much in a year.
“Fuchsia-Root Rot.” Pacific Northwest Pest Management Handbooks, 11 Sept. 2015, http://pnwhandbooks.stage.extension.oregonstate.edu/plantdisease/host-disease/fuchsia-root-rot
“Managing Pests in Gardens: Trees and Shrubs: Fuchsia—UC IPM.” Ucanr.Edu, http://ipm.ucanr.edu/PMG/GARDEN/PLANTS/fuchsia.html.