Basic Taxonomy and Plant Type
This is a case where plant taxonomy agrees with everyday common usage. The scientific name for these plants, Ginkgo biloba, or simply Ginkgo, is more commonly used than the common name, "maidenhair" trees. An alternate spelling, "gingko," corresponds more closely to how people pronounce the name of the tree.
Typically, the importance of knowing that a species has distinct male and female members is when achieving pollination is important, but that's not the case with maidenhair trees (read further to learn why gender matters here).
Ginkgo biloba trees (that is, the species plant, as opposed to the cultivars) reach 50-80 feet or more in height, with a spread of about 30-40 feet. But form, height, width, lifespan, and growth rate are all dependent on the cultivar you choose to grow (see below). The bark on older specimens becomes deeply furrowed. The uniquely fan-shaped leaves start out green but change to a golden-yellow fall foliage. Before the whole leaf turns golden, there is sometimes a stage during which the leaf is two-toned, with separate bands of gold and green. The common name, "maidenhair" was inspired by the fan shape of the leaves, which reminds people of maidenhair fern (Adiantum spp.).
Since the leaves are small (3 inches across), they do not make as much of a mess when they drop, as do the leaves of, for example, oak trees.
Males have pollen-bearing cones, similar to catkins, for reproduction. Females produce balls, each of which contains a seed; they are covered by a soft, yellow exterior.
Despite their fleshiness, these balls are not technically considered fruits, although people refer to them as such in everyday speech.
Growing Conditions, Use and Care:
While you should plant these trees in full sun to partial shade, they are not fussy about their soil, as long as you grow them in a well-drained loam, kept evenly moist.
Ginkgo biloba trees are attractive enough to function as specimen plants in your landscaping, particularly because of their golden fall foliage. They are more tolerant of compacted soil than are many trees. They are also disease-resistant and tolerate urban pollution. All of these qualities make them sensible choices for planting along city streets, where they can grow into tall shade trees. At the other end of the spectrum, they are also used for Japanese bonsai.
Many types start out narrow while young but then become quite wide as they age. You can slow down this process a little by pruning them while young so as to force them to produce a single leader.
But a much better solution is to select a cultivar known to have a narrow shape (see below).
Warning About Growing These Trees:
Whether for city streets or people's yards, the male trees are preferred, because they are fruitless. Female trees bear a fruit-like product that not only emits a foul odor but is also slippery when it drops down on sidewalks or driveways. Cleaning up after female Ginkgo biloba trees is a high maintenance task. The problematic "fruit" is about the size of a cherry tomato. Fortunately, all-male cultivars have been created through grafting; buying one of these cultivars gives you a way to experience the beauty of the tree while avoiding the mess.
'Autumn Gold,' a relatively fast-grower, is a popular male cultivar. Another is ‘Fastigiata,' a good choice if you want a tree that is narrow (column-shaped). Other column-shaped, male cultivars include:
- ‘Princeton Sentry’
For a small space, try 'Pendula,' a slow-growing male cultivar. It has a stocky build and reaches just 8 feet tall at maturity. While the cultivar name 'Pendula' normally indicates that the plant in question has a weeping form, in this case the form is more accurately described as umbrella-shaped.
Incidentally, this is not the only case where homeowners are advised to shop for the fruitless cultivar of a tree, in order to avoid messiness. For example, 'Rotundiloba' is a cultivar of American sweetgum recommended for low-maintenance, since it lacks gumballs (sweetgum is another fall foliage champion, by the way).
Interesting Facts and Another Warning:
Botanical.com recognizes Ginkgo biloba as "the oldest living tree on the planet that's been used safely for over 3000 years," noting that this relic from dinosaur times "was nearly wiped out during the Ice Age everywhere except in China."
The Ginkgo Pages website relates that those Chinese Ginkgo biloba trees were mainly found in monasteries "in the mountains and in palace and temple gardens, where Buddhist monks cultivated the tree from about 1100 AD for its many good qualities." Plant collectors in China from the West eventually were sold on the trees and brought specimens home.
The tree's good qualities include medicinal and culinary uses, exploited for centuries in both China and Japan. Roasted nuts from Ginkgo biloba trees have long been considered a delicacy in their native China.
- Warning: Since the seeds contain toxins, one must know how to cook them properly, otherwise they are not safe to eat.
The tree's medicinal qualities are now recognized in the West, too. Treatment for short-term memory loss is just one of many medicinal uses for the extract derived from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba trees.
If you navigated here looking for a fall-color specimen and are not sold on Ginkgo, you might be interested in perusing this resource for fall-foliage trees.