Persian violets are short-lived biennial flowering plants (they only last two growing seasons). Often grown as a houseplant, these violets can also be grown outdoors in tropical and subtropical regions. Growers outside of the violets' hardiness zones treat them as annuals in the garden, planting them for just one growing season and removing them after they’ve finished blooming.
The fast-growing plant remains fairly small, but it is quite eye-catching. It sports lots of petite, ovate, glossy dark green leaves. And fragrant, star-shaped, blue-violet flowers with yellow centers bloom profusely mostly in the spring and summer, though a re-bloom is possible under optimal growing conditions. Sometimes the plant dies after its first bloom is finished, even within its growing zones.
|Common Names||Persian violet|
|Botanical Name||Exacum affine|
|Plant Type||Annual, biennial, herbaceous|
|Mature Size||6–18 in. tall, 6–12 in. wide|
|Soil Type||Moist, well-drained|
|Hardiness Zones||10–12 (USDA)|
Persian Violet Care
You can plant your Persian violet in a suitable growing site in the garden, but transplanting can stress it and cause it to drop buds. So it’s often best to leave the violet in its nursery pot and grow it as a container plant instead. However, if the pot it came in doesn’t have drainage holes, you’ll have to carefully remove the plant and place it in a container just slightly larger than its root ball with ample drainage holes.
Persian violets generally don’t have any serious issues with pests or diseases. But keep an eye out for spider mites. Check for leaf damage and webbing along the plant, and treat any issues as soon as they arise.
These plants prefer bright, indirect light to grow and flower at their best. But full sun, especially afternoon sun, is too much for them and can scorch their foliage. When grown as a houseplant, bright areas near windows (but out of direct sun) are ideal.
The plants grow naturally in rocky soil. They can tolerate a variety of soil types as long as they have good drainage. They also like a slightly acidic soil pH. For potted Persian violets, an African violet potting mix is suitable.
Persian violets like soil that is consistently moist but not soggy. And they prefer watering with room-temperature water, as cold water can shock them.
Temperature and Humidity
These flowers like mild temperatures between 60 and 75 degrees Fahrenheit. They can tolerate warmer temperatures with adequate moisture and shade. But a cold snap can quickly kill them. As houseplants, protect your Persian violet from drafts and air blowing from heaters and air conditioners.
Moreover, Persian violets prefer a humidity level of at least 50 percent. To raise the humidity around a potted plant, place it on a tray filled with pebbles and water. But make sure the bottom of the pot isn’t touching the water, which can cause root rot. A humidifier in the room with your violet also can benefit it.
While your Persian violet is in bloom, feed it with a liquid fertilizer that's made for flowering plants, following label instructions. Don’t use a slow-release fertilizer, as the Persian violet likely won’t live long enough to benefit from the prolonged release of nutrients.
Types of Persian Violet
There are several varieties of Persian violets available, often differing in flower color:
- Exacum affine 'Princess White': This variety blooms with beautiful white flowers that have yellow centers and a sweet fragrance.
- Exacum affine 'Princess Deep Blue': As its name suggests, this variety blooms with bold blue-violet flowers.
- Exacum affine 'Atrocaeruleum': This variety features rich lavender flowers with yellow centers.
Propagating Persian Violet
Persian violets are typically planted from nursery plants in the spring as soon as the threat of frost has passed,
Potting and Repotting Persian Violets
Most Persian violets won't live long enough to require repotting. However, many people find that the plants they buy in garden centers are already root-bound. Plants in this condition will grow more slowly and bloom less vigorously than others with sufficient space.
If you see roots growing out of the top or bottom of the container, the plant is likely root-bound. In this case, gently ease it out of the container, and plant it at the same depth in a slightly bigger pot with fresh potting soil. Then, water the plant to evenly moisten the soil.
Even though Persian violets are relatively short-lived plants, they can be plagued by spider mites during dry weather. These pests are so tiny that their presence may only be revealed by the webs they weave among leaves. Of course, an infestation of leaf-sucking spider mites will also result in wilting, yellowing leaves. To get rid of spider mites, clip off affected areas of the plant and mist the leaves to increase moisture and deter mites.
How to Get Persian Violets to Bloom
Remove spent flowers to encourage further blooming. Optimal humidity will help to prolong your plant’s bloom period.
Common Problems with Persian Violets
Wilting leaves are often a result of water issues. They are very vulnerable to root rot due to overwatering. But on the other end of the spectrum, they will readily wilt if they are thirsty. This is tricky because root rot also can cause wilting. If your violet is wilting and the soil is moist, you’re likely watering too much. Most Persian violets won’t recover from root rot, so it’s best to start with a new plant.
Are Persian violets edible?
The delicate flowers and leaves of Persian violets are edible and make a lovely addition to summer salads.
Can you grow Persian violets indoors?
Persian violets thrive outdoors, but they can grow indoors with bright, indirect sunlight and a fairly humid environment with consistently moist soil.
Do Persian violets need moisture on their leaves?
Humid conditions are best for Persian violets, but they don't generally like to have wet leaves. Instead, keep their soil moist all the time and only mist the leaves if spider mites are causing problems.