Gardenias (Gardenia jasminoides) are tropical broadleaf evergreens, usually grown as large indoor potted specimens for the sake of their spectacular scented white flowers. The gardenia is a beloved plant for a very simple reason: Few natural scents are as remarkable, evocative, and memorable.
But the truth is that without the appeal of the spectacular scent, few gardeners would try to grow high-maintenance gardenias, which are vulnerable to many insects and diseases. They are most commonly found in conservatories and greenhouses. Nevertheless, even a few months with a blooming gardenia in the house makes them a worthwhile addition to your collection.
In the appropriate climate, gardenias can be planted in the garden in the spring or fall. They are generally planted from mature potted specimens that will bloom immediately. If you choose to try to grow gardenias from seeds, expect to wait two to three years before they flower.
|Botanical Name||Gardenia jasminoides|
|Common Name||Gardenia, cape jasmine|
|Plant Type||Flowering broadleaf evergreen|
|Mature Size||5–6 feet tall, similar spread|
|Sun Exposure||Part shade|
|Soil Type||Rich, well-drained soil; peat-based potting mix for container plants|
|Soil pH||5.0 to 6.5 (acidic)|
|Bloom Time||Seasonal bloomer|
|Flower Color||White, cream|
|Hardiness Zones||8 to 11 (USDA); often grown as a houseplant|
|Native Area||China, Japan, Taiwan|
|Toxicity||Non-toxic to humans; mildly toxic to animals|
Watch Now: How to Grow a Gardenia Indoors
Gardenias grow outside only in the USDA zones 8 to 11, across the South and the Pacific Coast. If you live in cooler climates, you can take your gardenia houseplant outside during the spring and summer after the temperature stays above 60 degrees Fahrenheit. But be careful to bring it indoors on any night when the temperature falls below that minimum and as soon as fall makes its appearance.
When planted in the garden, gardenias prefer rich, acidic soil that drains well. Amending the planting area with plenty of organic material is a good idea. Place gardenias in light or medium shade, in a location where they don't face competition from tree roots. Soil should be regularly covered with a thick layer of mulch to control weeds, as these plants don't care for cultivating.
A well-tended gardenia will be compact with deep green leaves, and will bloom in early spring to summer depending on location, when the nighttime temperatures are above 60 degrees Fahrenheit and daytime temps are between 75 and 82 degrees. When growing them indoors, this means you'll need to keep them in a room that's relatively warm during the day.
Indoors, give gardenias bright light, but avoid direct sunlight, especially during summer. Outdoors, they prefer a part shade location.
Gardenias are acid-loving plants, so they prefer soil with a slightly lower pH. Normal potting mixes with a peat base meet this criterion. When planted outdoors, it's best to test the soil for pH and amend as needed to create ideal conditions for the plant. A teaspoon of agricultural sulfur mixed into the planting hole may help lower soil pH.
Keep soil continuously moist but reduce watering in the winter. Drip irrigation is a good method since it keeps water off the leaves, which can cause fungal leaf spots.
Temperature and Humidity
Gardenias require temperatures above 60 degrees Fahrenheit. Avoid cold drafts if the temperature drops lower. These plants prefer a high humidity level, above 60 percent. In climates with cold, dry winter air, indoor plants may require the use of a humidifier or constant misting to maintain proper humidity.
For garden plants in warm regions, feed in mid-March using an acid fertilizer, then again in late June. Don't feed gardenias in the fall.
For container plants, feed about every three weeks with an acidifyin fertilizer—the type used for azaleas or camellias is a good choice.
Is Gardenia Toxic?
Gardenias have no known toxicity for humans, but pets may experience symptoms if any parts of the plant are ingested. These plants contain geniposides and gardenosides, substances that many animals are sensitive to.
Symptoms of Poisoning
In dogs, cats, and horses, ingesting gardenia has been shown to cause mild vomiting, diarrhea, or hives.
This plant has been widely cultivated, so there are many cultivars available. In warmer climates where gardenia is grown outdoors, many plants are grafted onto a Gardenia thunbergia rootstock. The grafted plants tend to be more vigorous, with better, larger blooms, but they are even less cold tolerant than the species.
These are a few of the recommended cultivars:
- Gardenia jasminoides 'Aimee' is a large shrub (up to 6 feet) with huge 4- to 5-inch white flowers.
- G. jasminoides 'Fortuniana' is another large shrub, known to be one of the most free-blooming. It produces 4-inch blooms from mid-spring through mid-summer.
- G. jasminoides 'Buttons' is a dwarf variety, growing 24 to 30 inches tall with 2-inch flowers.
- G. jasminoides 'Crown Jewel' is another dwarf variety, growing to 3 feet with 3-inch flowers. It is known to be hardy as far north as zone 6.
Prune gardenias after the plants have stopped blooming, removing straggly branches and spent blooms.
Potting and Repotting Gardenia
When planted in containers, plant gardenias in a good-quality peat-based potting mix. It's a good idea to repot your gardenia in the spring or every other spring, as needed. If it seems to be pot-bound or not as healthy as it had been, but you find no insects or diseases, it usually is a good signal that it needs to be repotted. Use a low-pH potting soil formulated for rhododendron or gardenias.
Gardenias are best propagated by rooting stem cuttings. In early spring, take a 3- to 4-inch cutting of a stem tip, making the cut just below a leaf node. Dip the cut end of the stem in rooting hormone, then plant in a mixture of potting mix and perlite. Keep moist until good roots form, then transplant into 3-inch pots to continue growing.
Gardenias can be propagated by seed, but it is a long process that can take two to three years to produce flowering plants. Seeds collected from the dried seed pods should be cleaned, then dried for three to four weeks. Plant the seeds in a mixture of perlite and peat moss, barely covering them with about 1/8 inch of potting mix. Keep the seeds moist and out of sunlight until they sprout—about four to six weeks. When the seedlings are several inches tall, transplant them into pots filled with peat-based potting soil and continue growing them in a bright indoor location.
Common Pests/ Diseases
Aside from cold temperatures and inconsistent watering, which will cause bud and leaf drop, the most common problems are insects, especially scale, aphids, spider mites, mealybugs, and whiteflies. A variety of horticultural oils and soaps can treat these, but be prepared for your plants to face frequent infestations.
Gardenias also are vulnerable to powdery mildew, leaf spot, dieback, anthracnose, and sooty mold, some of which can be treated with fungicides. In many instances, affected plants will need to be removed and destroyed.
This is a plant best suited for a gardener who enjoys the challenge of a temperamental plant that offers the reward of heavenly flowers.