When grown indoors, Norfolk Island Pines are pretty little evergreen trees with a lacy, delicate appearance. They are, in fact, not even pine trees at all, but belong to a different plant family. In the nursery trade, you're most likely to see Norfolks sold as mini-Christmas trees throughout the Christian world. They are frequently decorated with ribbons or ornaments. If you're not interested in a Norfolk as a stand-in Christmas tree, they make pretty foliage plants and are usually kept below about three feet tall in smaller containers.
|Growing Norfolk Pine|
|Botanical Name||Araucaria heterophylla|
|Common Name||Norfolk pine, Norfolk Island pine|
|Mature Size||Up to 200 feet tall in the wild; 5–8 feet tall indoors|
|Sun Exposure||Full sun; can tolerate shade|
|Soil Type||Peat-based mixture|
|Hardiness Zones||1- and 11|
|Native Area||Norfolk Island in the Pacific|
Norfolk Island Pines are capable of growing both indoors and out. While they have preferred growing conditions they are quite forgiving and can thrive in a variety of settings.
Norfolk Island pines—especially younger trees—have notoriously weak root systems, which is how they earned the name "suicide tree." To strengthen their roots, make sure you're supplying regular fertilizer and don't hesitate to stake your tree up if it needs it.
Although they are full-sun plants whenever possible, they can also handle relatively long periods (months at a time) in dimmer conditions. Thus, you can keep your potted plant inside during the winter, and then move it to a sunny spot outside when the summer comes around. If your plant begins to stretch while growing inside, the odds are that the combination of low light and heavy fertilizer is causing leggy growth. In that case, cut back on the fertilizer until the plant has more access to sunlight.
When Norfolk pines are planted outdoors in the appropriate hardiness zone (10 or 11) they can grow to be enormous trees. It's not unusual, in fact, for them to grow to a towering 200 feet.
Norfolk pines prefer full sun and tend to stretch out in dimmer conditions. Give your plant the best light possible, or, if you're raising a potted pine, alternate between full sun and short periods in dimmer conditions.
These are acid-loving plants, with a preferred pH of about 5.5 or even 4.5. A peat-based mixture is perfect for them as the mix will gradually acidify as the peat breaks down.
They are somewhat drought-tolerant, so they are a bit more forgiving where water is concerned. It's advisable to let the soil dry out slightly between waterings. Keep an eye on the needles: if they turn yellow, your plant needs more water.
As they are from the South Pacific, Norfolk Island pines prefer warmer, wetter climates between 65 and 70 degrees Fahrenheit. They can survive cooler and warmer temperatures briefly. To help your indoor plant maintain humidity, mist it regularly with a spray bottle or place it over a saucer of water (don't allow its roots to sit in the water, though).
Feed your Norfolk pine with a weak liquid fertilizer throughout the growing season, although you may have to suspend fertilizing in low-light periods.
Repotting and Propagating
Young Norfolk Island pines are not very fast growers, so it might be possible to repot your tree every other year instead of every year. As the plant matures, it will begin to grow faster. Repot your Norfolk Island pine in the springtime, and if your plant has attained a larger size, make sure to use a pot with plenty of heavy material in the mix, such as potting sand, to provide enough weight to keep the plant upright.
The Norfolk Island pine is a gymnosperm, meaning that a single plant contains male and female reproductive organs. Virtually all Norfolk Island pines are grown from seeds, which are usually imported from the Pacific region. Most home growers will never bother with seeds or propagation.
Toxicity and Pests
Norfolk pine is mildly toxic to cats and dogs. If they ingest the needles, they may experience stomach and mouth irritation along with vomiting. Norfolk pine is not known to be toxic to human beings.
There is only one variety on the market: the Araucaria heterophylla. This plant does not have cultivars or named varieties. A few other species from this family sometimes show up in the trade, mislabeled as the original plant. These include A. columnaris, A. araucana, and A. bidwillii. It's unlikely you'll see these, but the cultural requirements are similar just in case.