An orchid can live happily in a pot for a long time, blooming season after season, but every few years you will have to repot the plant. The growing medium breaks down over time and won't properly anchor the plant or provide it with the needed nutrients. An orchid could also outgrow its pot, or the cachepot the orchid came in might not be the optimal vessel for the plant. (You can get special orchid pots that have extra drainage holes.)
Know how to care for the orchid plant and when and how to repot it to keep your orchid happy and healthy.
Optimal Growing Conditions for Orchid Plants
These plants thrive in strong light, but not direct late-afternoon sunlight (although dendrobiums can handle more sun). They also need high humidity and airflow around the roots. They need regular periods of drying alternated with heavy watering. Orchids do best in temperatures above 50 degrees but below 85 degrees.
The closer you can come to creating these conditions, the more success and better blooms you will have.
Most store-bought orchids come packaged in cheap plastic pots with the roots packed in soaked moss. Obviously, this violates two of the main rules of successful growth. There is no air flow around the roots, and the roots are never given a chance to completely dry out. Thus, the plant cannot breathe and root rot is inevitable.
Orchid roots are highly specialized organs designed to soak up water very quickly and breathe. They do not extract nutrients from the soil.
How to Repot an Orchid
The first step with any store-bought orchid is to enjoy the bloom. Don't attempt to re-pot a flowering plant.
After the bloom is done, go ahead and cut off the dead flower spike with sterile snippers and repot the plant. Orchids should be potted into specialized orchid pots in an orchid mixture. Orchid pots feature wide drainage slits so water will literally run through the pot. They are widely available. Orchid potting mixture is usually composed of several chunky ingredients, including pine bark, charcoal, and even styrofoam.
To re-pot your orchid, follow these steps:
Remove It from the Pot
Remove it from the plastic pot and carefully remove as much of the moss as you can. Healthy roots should be white and firm, with a small green growing point.
Prune Unhealthy Roots
Cut away any shriveled, rotten or blackened roots.
Add Plant to New Pot
Set the plant into the pot and fill in around it with potting mixture. The plant should be firmly situated, but it will not be completely anchored. Eventually, new roots will grow through the potting mixture and attach to the pot itself, thus anchoring your plant.
Once it's re-potted, find a good spot. An east-facing window with a few hours of mild morning sun is perfect. To provide the necessary humidity and catch run-off water, put the plant into a wide, deep tray and fill the tray with gravel.
Watch Now: Caring for and Repotting Your New Orchid
Tips for Indoor Orchid Care
Caring for your orchid is pretty simple. During the summer months, water it weekly and heavily. Let the water drench the roots and fill up the pebble tray. It doesn't hurt every so often to put the plant in the kitchen sink and really soak it down. Don't worry, you won't kill it as long as it's allowed to dry out afterward.
During the growing season, feed it weekly with a weak solution of a powder or liquid fertilizer.
In the winter, keep your plant warm and cut the water back to once a month or so. Mist it every so often to make sure it stays hydrated. Don't fertilize it.
If you see signs of distress, such as yellowing leaves, wrinkled leaves, or no blooms, move the plant and keep tweaking your conditions. Once an orchid finds a happy spot and falls into a routine, the plant should regularly throw out new roots and leaves or canes and reward you yearly with a beautiful bloom.
What's Wrong with my Orchid? American Orchid Society.