Overview and Description:
Comfrey is a tall, easy to care for perennial plant that is often grown simply for its beauty. However, comfrey was once grown as a popular medicinal herb. We have recently learned that it can be carcinogenic when taken internally, but it is still used as a topical treatment for skin irritations, cuts, sprains and swelling and as livestock feed and making compost.
Comfrey plants shoot up quickly, early in the season, and can easily reach heights of around 5 feet.
The lower leaves are equally large, somewhat dwarfing the hanging clusters of flowers at the top of the plant. The form and size of the plants might have you thinking it is a shrub, but it will die back to the ground in the winter and it does not get woody. Comfrey is in the same family as borage, a smaller plant with a similar structure.
Because of its deep tap root, Comfrey is extremely drought tolerant and a useful clay busting plant.
- Leaves: Coarse and hairy with winged stalks and stems. Ovate to lance-shaped and dark green.
- Flowers: Violet, pink or creamy yellow flowers born on forked cymes.
Grow your comfrey in full sun to partial shade, for healthy plants that do not fall over.
36 - 60 inches (h) x 24 - 48 inches (w)
Comfrey flowers bloom late spring / early summer.
- Symphytum officinale 'Bocking' - a sterile hybrid that does not self-seed.
- Symphytum officinale 'Variegatum' - has leaves with white margins
- Symphytum 'Goldsmith' - a shorter cousin with green, gold and cream variegation and pale blue flowers.
Comfrey makes an interesting focal point in a border and is great for drawing the eye to the back of a border.
It looks very nice when grown at the ends of vegetable beds and somewhat formally, in the center of a 4-square herb garden.
The pale flowers and dark green leaves are set off nicely by chartreuse and bright clear yellows, like 'Cripps Golden' Hinoki Falsecypress, Yellow Foxtail Grass (Alopecurus pratensis 'Aureu') or a Canary Creeper Vine running up through it.
Comfrey Growing Tips:
Soil: Comfrey is widely adapted but it will thrive in a rich organic soil. As with all rapid growers, comfrey needs a lot of nitrogen. Comfrey gets all its nitrogen from the soil, so some type of regular organic matter is essential. However it is not particular about soil pH. A neutral to acidic range of 6.0 - 7.0 is ideal.
Planting Comfrey: Comfrey can be grown from seed, but it requires a winter chilling period to germinate. It is not unusual to sow seed and not see any germination for 2 years.
If all you want is one comfrey plant, you can usually find them for a reasonable price in the herb section of local nurseries or by mail order.
Plants can go outdoors once danger of frost has passed.
When starting several comfrey plants,it is more common to use root cuttings. These are 2-6 inch lengths of root which are planted horizontally 2-8 inch deep. Plant shallowly in clay soil and deeper in sandy soils.
You can also grow comfrey from crown cuttings, but these will be more expensive. A crown cutting will include several eyes and may grow faster than root cuttings, however the difference is negligible. Crown cuttings are planted 3-6 inches deep.
If you are growing several plants of comfrey for harvesting, space them in a grid, 3 ft. apart.
Once comfrey is established it will take care of itself. Each year the plant will get a little larger and the root system will get more dense. It is very hard to get rid of an established comfrey plant. Comfrey can live several decades before it begins to decline.
Because of its tap root, comfrey is very drought tolerant. However regular watering will keep it growing strong and blooming.
Leaves can be harvested and dried at any time. If you are growing it to harvest the leaves, you can make your first cutting when the plants are about 2 ft.tall. Cut back to within a few inches of the crow. However if you begin harvesting early, you will not get any flowers.
Leaves, flowers and roots have all been used in traditional medicine, but use extreme caution if you do not know what you are doing. Comfrey should never be taken orally and even a topical application can cause problems.
One of the safest and easiest uses of comfrey is as a mulch for other crops. Comfrey leaves will slowly release all their nutrients their long tap roots pulled up from the soil. The are especially good around plants that like a little extra potassium, like fruits and tomatoes.
Comfrey Pests & Problems:
No insects are known to be problems of comfrey. There is a comfrey rust that can overwinter in roots and decrease vigor and yield, but it is not common in most areas.