Lavender is a well known and fragrant plant with gray-green foliage, upright flower spikes, and a compact shrub form. In the garden, lavender makes an excellent companion plant for almost anything from roses to cabbage. It is one of those aromatic, gray herbs that deer avoid, making it a great choice as a decoy in your Hosta or daylily beds.
Another major reason lavender is so prized is that the flowers keep their fragrance when dried. For best drying results, harvest the flowers as the buds first begin to open. Hang in small bunches upside down in a warm spot with good air circulation. Besides being beautiful and aromatic, lavender flowers are also edible. They can be used raw in salads, added to soups and stews, used as a seasoning, baked into cookies, and brewed into tea. Use sparingly; a little goes a long way.
|Botanical Name||Lavandula spp.|
|Plat Type||Short-lived herbaceous perennial|
|Mature Size||20 to 24 inches tall and wide|
|Sun Exposure||Full sun|
|Soil Type||Well-draining soil|
|Soil pH||6.7 to 7.3|
|Bloom Time||Late spring to early summer|
|Flower Color||Purple, violet-blue, rose, pale pink, white, and yellow|
|Hardiness Zones||5 to 9|
|Native Areas||Europe, Eastern Africa, Southwest Asia, Southeast India, Mediterranean|
How to Grow Lavender
As with most plants, your success in growing this coveted plant will depend both on what kind of growing conditions you can provide and which varieties you select to grow. Lavender plants will tolerate many growing conditions, but they thrive in warm, well-draining soil, and full sun.
Most lavenders are labeled hardy in USDA zones 5 to 9. While you can grow lavender in USDA Hardiness Zone 5, it is unlikely you will ever have a lavender hedge. More realistically you can expect to have plants that will do well when the weather cooperates, but experience the occasional loss of a plant or two after a severe winter or a wet, humid summer. Horticulturalists are breeding ever-tougher lavender plants, so that may change.
Unfortunately, even if you do everything right and your lavender plants appear happy, the genus is generally not long-lived and most lavender plants begin to decline after about 10 years. So keep starting new plants to carry you through your rough spots.
Lavender plants are fairly trouble-free, but leaf spots and root rot can occur if the soil is too wet. Many plants perish if the soil gets too wet over the winter months.
Lavender plants thrive in full sun.
As with many plants grown for their essential oils, a lean soil will encourage a higher concentration of oils, so go easy on the organic matter and on the fertilizer. Lavender prefers well-drained soil that is on the dry side. An alkaline or especially chalky soil will also enhance lavender's fragrance.
Lavender is a resilient plant that is extremely drought-tolerant, once established. When first starting your lavender plants, keep them regularly watered during their first growing season.
Temperature and Humidity
It is dampness, more than cold, that is responsible for killing lavender plants. Dampness can come in the form of wet roots during the winter months or high humidity in the summer. If humidity is a problem, make sure you have plenty of space between your plants for airflow and always plant in a sunny location. Protect your lavender plants from harsh winter winds. Planting next to a stone or brick wall will provide additional heat and protection.
Areas where the ground routinely freezes and thaws throughout the winter will benefit from a layer of mulch applied after the ground initially freezes. Don't be afraid to give them a handful of compost in the planting hole when you are first starting them. Additional feeding is not needed with these plants.
Lavender plants are best propagated by either softwood cuttings (the soft, flexible tips of shoots) or hardwood cuttings (segments of shoots with woody stems). Softwood cuttings are available in the spring; hardwood cuttings in the fall.
- Use a sharp knife to cut a 3 to 4-inch segment of a healthy shoot. Hardwood cuttings should be severed just below a bump that identifies a leaf node.
- Remove the leaves from the bottom 2 inches of the stem, and scrape off the skin from the bottom of the stem along one side.
- Fill a small pot with seed-starting mix, then dip the stripped side of the cutting in rooting hormone and bury it into the seed-starting mix.
- Moisten the seed-starting mix, then cover the pot with plastic. Softwood cuttings take two to four weeks to begin rooting; hardwood cuttings take somewhat longer.
- When roots are established, remove the plastic and place the pot in a sunny location.
- Feed the plant once each week with a liquid plant fertilizer diluted to 25 percent strength. After two or three weeks, the plant can be transplanted outdoors or into a larger pot with standard potting soil. Commercial potting soil has enough nutrients to nourish the plant without any more feeding.
Potting and Repotting
Where outdoor planting is not practical, you can always grow your lavender in pots and move it to follow the sun, or even bring it indoors for the winter. Although lavender has a large, spreading root system, it prefers growing in a tight space. A pot that can accommodate the root ball with a couple of inches to spare is a good choice. A pot that is too large will only encourage excessive dampness.
Ensure that the container has good drainage. Root rot is one of the few problems experienced by lavender plants. Use a loose, soilless mix for planting and remember that container-grown lavender will require more water than garden-grown plants. How much more depends on the environment and the type of pot. Water when the soil, not the plant, appears dry, and water at the base of the plant to limit dampness on the foliage.
Compact varieties make the best choices for containers. Some to try are Lavandula angustifolia 'Nana Alba' and Spanish lavender (Lavandula stoechas subsp. pedunculata).
Varieties of Lavender
There are many varieties of lavender, with different types within each variety:
English Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) USDA Hardiness Zones 5 to 8:
- 'Munstead' is an old-fashioned standard with blue-purple flowers, growing18 inches tall.
- 'Hidcote' is favored for its dark purple flowers; grows 24 inches tall.
- 'Jean Davis' produces pale pink flower spikes; grows18 inches tall.
Lavandin (Lavandula x intermedia) USDA Hardiness Zones 5 to 8:
- 'Provence' dries particularly well, growing 30 inches tall.
- 'Grosso' is highly disease resistant and fragrant; grows 30 inches tall.
Fringed Lavender (Lavandula dentata) USDA Hardiness Zones 8 to 9:
- This is a bushy, spreading shrub that produces dense purple-blue flower spikes that are very pretty, but only mildly fragrant. It grows 3 feet tall.
French Lavender (Lavandula stoechas) USDA Hardiness Zones 8 to 9:
- A beautiful Mediterranean native that is compact and bushy with fragrant, dark purple flowers are topped by a feathery purple bract. Good cultivars include 'Dark Eyes' and 'Silver Frost'.
Spanish Lavender (Lavendula stoechas subsp. pedunculata) USDA Hardiness Zones 9 to 10:
- This plant bears its flower stalks high above the foliage.
Watch Now: How to Prune Lavender Plants
Although lavender plants get regularly pruned simply by harvesting the flowers, to keep them well-shaped and to encourage new growth, a bit of spring pruning is in order. The taller varieties can be cut back by approximately one-third of their height. Lower growing varieties can either be pruned back by a couple of inches or cut down to new growth.
If you live in an area where lavender suffers some winter die-back, don't even think about pruning your plants until you see some new green growth at the base of the plant. If you disturb the plants too soon in the season, they give up trying.