When many other plants are slowly shutting down for winter, the red spider lily is just getting started. After its summer dormancy, this member of the amaryllis family sends up tall flower stalks with umbels of bright red flowers. Each bulb should produce up to four stems which will sprout in September or October then grow over a foot in about seven days. They last for about two weeks and gradually fade to a lighter pinkish hue.
The plant has different names, each describing a special feature. The flowers appear before the evergreen leaves unfurl, hence the name “naked lily.” The name “spider lily” comes from the stamens of the flowers that resemble spider legs. In Florida, the bloom coincides with hurricane season, earning it the name “hurricane flower.”
Although it is a native of Asia, the red spider lily has adapted and become naturalized in the southeastern United States. Though not invasive, it is a fast and vigorous spreader and a good choice to interplant with annuals and perennials in spots where you want a vibrant splash of color in the late summer and early fall.
|Botanical Name||Lycoris radiata|
|Common Name||Red spider lily, naked lily, hurricane lily|
|Plant Type||Perennial flower|
|Mature Size||1-2 ft. height, 1-1.5 ft. width|
|Sun Exposure||Full sun, partial shade|
|Soil Type||Well-drained, sandy, loamy|
|Soil pH||Acidic to alkaline (6.0 to 7.5)|
|Bloom Time||Late summer, early fall|
|Hardiness Zones||6-10 (USDA)|
|Native Area||Southeastern China and southern Japan|
|Toxicity||Bulb toxic to humans|
Red Spider Lily Care
When selecting a location for red spider lilies, make sure it will be permanent because the plants do not like to be moved.
Plant the bulbs with the neck above the ground level. Fully burying it in the ground will affect the plant’s ability to flower.
Otherwise, red spider lily is a care-free plant with no serious disease problems.
Red spider lilies can grow in full sun to part shade. For best flowering, however, part shade is best. Also, in a partially shady location, it tends to bloom earlier than in full sun.
Plant your red spider lily in soil that is rich in organic matter and well-drained. Plant each bulb about 8 inches apart.
During the summer when the plant is dormant, the red spider lily does best in dry soil. With its deep roots, it can tap into water reserves deep in the soil. Overwatering during the summer can lead to bulb rot.
Once the growing season has begun—which you can tell from the buds forming—the soil should be kept medium moist. In the absence of rain, water the plant as needed.
Temperature and Humidity
After its bloom, the red spider lily develops new leaves which are evergreen and persist throughout the winter until they die back in the spring. In zones 6 and 7, it is necessary to protect the leaves and exposed bulbs from winter freezes with a layer of mulch.
In the spring, add a high-nitrogen fertilizer, which will provide the plant with the nutrients it needs for its late summer and fall growth. After the bloom, add a fertilizer that is high in potassium and phosphorus to encourage root growth and improve winter hardiness.
Red Spider Lily Varieties
- Lycoris radiata var. radiata is sterile and thus does not form seeds so it can spend all its energy blooming and producing bulbs, by which it spreads fast and vigorously. It is the most suitable for naturalizing.
- Lycoris radiata var. pumila is a smaller, less common variety that reproduces by seeds.
It's important to know when to prune the red spider lily. Though they do not really need any pruning, you may be tempted to clean up their appearance. Do not prune the flower when its foliage is yellowing. That is the time when the bulb is receiving nutrients to make its best blooms in the next year. Instead, wait until the foliage is completely withered and dried up before pruning.
Propagating Red Spider Lily
When spider lilies have developed large clumps or outgrown their space you can carefully divide them and replant the bulbs in other locations. Do this in the summer when the plants are dormant. Depending on how many roots the bulbs have, they do not bloom the same year or the next until they are fully established.
Potting and Repotting Red Spider Lily
If your local winter is too cold for red spider lilies in a perennial flower bed, you can grow them in containers filled with organically rich soil. The containers must be very large and deep to allow for expansive root growth. The plants won’t bloom if the container is too small. Plant the bulbs right side up (pointy end) so they are just sticking up through the soil, which will encourage flowering. Space bulbs 8 inches apart in a container as you would in the ground.