The red maple (Acer rubrum) is a tree native to North America and is a member of the Sapindaceae (soapberry) family. It is the fastest-growing tree in the Eastern United States, and in the north, the red maple is usually found in wet bottomlands or moist woods. Further south, it may be found in drier, rockier areas. Red maple trees are named for their rich, highly-desirable bright red foliage that develops in the autumn. This, along with its reasonably simple care needs, makes it a landscaping mainstay. Red maples are not toxic to humans, dogs, or cats but are toxic to horses and ponies.
|Common Name||Red maple, swamp maple, water maple, Drummond red maple, scarlet maple, Carolina red maple, trident red maple, soft maple|
|Botanical Name||Acer rubrum|
|Mature Size||40-70 ft. tall, 30 -50 ft. wide|
|Sun Exposure||Full, partial|
|Soil Type||Sandy, clay, well-drained|
|Hardiness Zones||3-9 (USDA)|
|Native Area||North America|
|Toxicity||Toxic to horses and ponies|
Red Maple Care
The red maple is relatively easy to care for and does well throughout all seasons. Its red color is not only evident in fall but also in the spring and summer. The tree is tall, but its canopy is relatively low, so you should plant it where height and width clearance isn't a concern. The red maple requires full or partial light, well-drained, moist soil, and only occasional pruning. You should select a naturally damp area to plant your tree, as it will otherwise require frequent and attentive watering.
Buying a red maple from a high-quality nursery will limit the need to prune throughout the tree's life and will usually guarantee brighter foliage. The tree transplants well at any age and tends to grow quickly. Be mindful of the conditions of your winters and summers when choosing to plant a red maple and its location on your property.
Red maples flourish in full sun, meaning at least six hours per day, or partial sun for four to six hours per day.
Red maples need well-drained, sandy, loamy acidic soil. The tree doesn't grow well in alkaline or salty conditions. Red maples grown in alkaline soil will yield pale leaves and suffer stunted growth.
Red maples prefer moist soil but will grow in dry soils provided adequate, regular irrigation (slow, deep watering is ideal). Once planted, make sure the soil remains moist but be careful not to overwet the ground, as it can stunt growth or damage the tree.
Temperature and Humidity
The red maple can survive in dry and moist areas ranging from dry ridges to bogs. It can grow in mountainous regions, swampy regions, and along streams. While the tree does best in cooler weather, it is found as far north as humid Newfoundland and as south as the dry-heated Carolinas.
Fertilization is usually unnecessary, but when needed, a general-purpose fertilizer applied in spring is sufficient. The best fertilizers for red maples are rich in nitrogen. Use a three-inch layer of mulch around the tree's base to help the soil hold moisture.
Types of Red Maple
- Autumn Blaze
- Burgundy Bell
- Scarlet Sentinel
Pruning typically isn't necessary, but you can remove crowded branches to avoid narrow angles between the trunk and to create the appearance of more substantial, wider angles. The red maple is very sensitive to pruning, so generally, you should avoid cutting branches larger than a few inches in diameter. You should make cuts outside the branch collar to help the tree close cutting wounds. It's best to prune at the end of summer or fall, as the tree tends to bleed sap when pruned early in the growing season.
Propagating Red Maples
You can propagate a red maple easily using cuttings. It's best to propagate in late spring or early summer. Here's how to propagate:
- Cut a 6-8 inch branch that carries an undeveloped bud or light leaf growth
- Use shears to clip off the leaves
- Soak the cutting in warm water for 20 minutes
- Dip the cutting in a rooting hormone powder
- Fill a planting pot with a shallow hole with moss and sand
- Secure wire, sticks, or bamboo around the cutting to promote upright growth
- Cover with a clear piece of plastic to retain moisture
How to Grow Red Maples From Seeds
- Add soil to a growing pot with at least an 8 inch diameter
- Choose a branch with browning seeds and plant them into your pot
- Place the seed 1-2 inches below the soil's surface
- Keep your pot under full sun and water frequently
Red maple trees usually do well throughout the winter. Leaf loss is normal, and you should not fertilize the tree during this time. You can prepare your tree for the winter by providing it with plentiful water and using mulch to retain moisture and stimulate the roots. You can also cover the tree with a tarp or burlap for extra protection during heavy snow. If your tree is small or young enough to be potted, you can place it in an unheated garage. Red maples can handle cold temperatures down to 15 °F, so consider the typical winter weather in your area before choosing to plant a red maple.
Common Pests & Plant Diseases
Red maples are susceptible to several pests and diseases. Common diseases include Verticillium wilt, anthracnose, leaf spot, tar spot, and powdery mildew. The tree can suffer infestations from insects such as gall mites, leafhoppers, aphids, cankerworms, and mapleworms. One of the most effective ways to prevent disease and pests is to rake fallen leaves often and to monitor your tree closely for signs of infestation.
Common Problems With Red Maples
The main issues with red maple trees are weak structure and vulnerability to Verticillium wilt and pests.
This disease causes browning, wilting, and leaf loss. It gradually spreads throughout the tree, and the resulting excess of fallen leaves can negatively affect its growth. While sometimes challenging to avoid, Verticillium wilt can be controlled by fertilizing and pruning damaged leaves and branches.
Red maples are prone to cracking bark and overcrowding branches. This leads to susceptibility to damage in spring storms. You can help protect your tree from damage with light pruning and cabling.
Black Spots on Leaves
In the spring, your red maple may develop black leaves due to foliar disease. This causes leaf-dropping, which affects tree growth and can foster pests.
How long can red maples live?
Red maple trees tend to live between 80 to 100 years when properly cared for.
What plants are similar to red maples?
The sugar maple is similar to the red maple, with a few key differences. The red maple is a soft tree, while the sugar maple is hard. A sugar maple's bark is difficult to peel off. They grow yellow or orange leaves and bear brown buds.
Can red maples grow indoors?
You can grow red maple trees indoors as long as you're able to control their growth. Due to their height, the tree's development will need to be intentionally stunted to fit them in your home.