Everything You Need to Know About Growing Tomatoes

Growth tomatoes
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For many, ripe tomatoes are a nostalgic summer treat. This fresh fruit (yes, they're actually considered a fruit, not a vegetable!) can be eaten straight off the vine like an apple or enjoyed in a bevy of recipes, from soups and salads to sauces and sandwiches.

For many gardeners, growing the perfect aromatic, unblemished, sun-ripened tomatoes is the ultimate trophy. In the right climate, tomatoes are generally easy to grow, but choosing the proper varieties and keeping your plants healthy and productive requires both art and science. Then, once you reap your bounty, the question becomes what to do with the excess. From harvesting and preserving to buying and storing, maintaining the best tomato practices will assure you a fruitful summer and give you a leg up on next year's crop.

  • 01 of 06

    Selecting and Growing Tomatoes

    tomatoes on the vine

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    Growing a badge-of-honor tomato starts with choosing the perfect variety, sowing it properly, and providing it with a little TLC until it sets root. Determinate varieties of tomatoes will produce one large crop, then die off towards the end of the season while indeterminate varieties will continue to produce fruit throughout the growing season, sometimes even up until the first frost. And a third type, heirloom varieties, consists of generations-old seeds grown for their specific unique characteristics, like taste, texture, color, and shape.

    When planting your tomatoes, select a sunny space in your garden with well-draining soil. Adding compost or all-purpose organic fertilizer to the mix before planting will assure your plants get enough nutrients to thrive. Then, start your plants as seed indoors or buy seedlings from a nursery, sowing them directly into the ground once the risk of the last frost has passed and the nights begin to warm.

  • 02 of 06

    Troubleshooting Tomatoes

    diseased tomatoes

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    Gardeners aren't the only ones who love tomatoes—pests and diseases can set in and infect your crop if you're not careful. Most commonly, moldy residue found in last year's soil can produce early blight in tomato plants that are constantly wet. To prevent this, make sure to clean away the fall debris from your garden before planting, and allow the soil to dry out between waterings. Similarly, late blight can devastate whole crops—it spreads fast, so remove any noticeably affected plants from your garden before the fungus sets in. Another disease, blossom end rot, produces hard, brown patches on tomatoes and can be caused by too much nitrogen in the soil or uneven watering.

    Pests like aphids, cutworms, flea beetles, and hornworms can also affect your tomato crops. There are many natural ways to eradicate these critters, including essential oil preparations and diatomaceous earth. Worms are especially destructive, as they can eat an entire tomato plant in a matter of hours.

  • 03 of 06

    Preparing for Next Year's Crop

    saving tomato seeds

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    Your work isn't done once you've experienced a successful tomato harvest—now it's time to prepare for next year by saving seeds from this year's successful varietals. Tomato seeds need to be fermented before drying in order to improve next year's germination. To do so, store them in their pulp until it forms a mold film, then rinse, dry, and package them away for next year's sowing.

  • 04 of 06

    Buying and Storing Tomatoes

    market tomatoes

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    You don't have to grow your own tomatoes to experience the crop at its best. In fact, going to your weekly farmer's market and selecting prime produce gives some people the same gratifying experience. When choosing tomatoes, select ones that are free of bruises and yield only slightly when pressed with your fingers. If you're buying tomatoes to use later on, select harder fruit and allow them to ripen on your kitchen counter. And a cardinal rule: Never refrigerate tomatoes. Doing so makes them mushy and tasteless—if you need to save a sliced tomato, simply place it in a dish on your counter and cover it with plastic.

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  • 05 of 06

    Ripening Green Tomatoes

    green tomatoes

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    If summer is nearing its end and some of your tomato crops still haven't ripened, don't panic—there are ways to coax your green tomatoes to blush. You can pick them as-is and ripen them on a sunny windowsill, or place individual tomatoes in a brown paper bag with an apple. Alternatively, you can also wrap them individually in newspaper and store them in a dark spot. And, when all else fails, you can whip up a yummy dish of fried green tomatoes.

  • 06 of 06

    Preserving Tomatoes

    sun drying tomatoes

    The Spruce / K. Dave

    When your tomato harvest is piling up on every windowsill and countertop, it may be time to break out some preservation techniques. The options are endless—you can freeze or can a tomato sauce, whip up some fresh salsa or sun-dry tomatoes using your oven or a dehydrator. The simplest method, canning whole tomatoes, can allow you to preserve your harvest through the winter and into the new year, giving you the chance to appreciate your bounty all year long.