Heirloom tomatoes are annual vegetable plants that have not been crossbred, or hybridized, for at least 40 years. They are open-pollinated, meaning the seeds will produce plants identical to the parent plant. This means you can save your heirloom tomato seeds and grow the same tomatoes next year. Heirloom tomatoes need a bit more care than standard hybrids (which are bred primarily for growing performance rather than flavor), but they tend to have thinner skin, juicier flesh, and better flavor than most hybrid varieties.
Heirlooms, like the many hybrids, are fast-growing, but the plants need 60 to 80 days or more to produce ripe fruit. They are best planted in spring (after the threat of frost has passed) as transplanted seedlings or small plants bought from a garden center. If you live in an area with a long growing season, you might have success direct seeding heirloom tomatoes in the garden, provided you start them early enough.
|Botanical Name||Solanum lycopersicum|
|Common Name||Heirloom tomato; open-pollinated tomato|
|Plant Type||Annual, vegetable|
|Mature Size||5-8 ft.|
|Sun Exposure||Full sun|
|Soil Type||Loamy, well-drained|
|Soil pH||6.0 to 6.8; slightly acidic|
|Hardiness Zone||1-13 (USDA)|
|Native Area||South America|
|Toxicity||Toxic; leaves toxic to some pets|
How to Plant Heirloom Tomato Plants
Heirloom tomato plants need a lot of nature's bounty to produce their yield. Don't skimp on light, water, or fertilizer if you want big beefsteaks to adorn your salads and sandwiches.
Keep a careful eye on the soil in which you plant your heirloom tomatoes. While rich, well-drained soil can lead to a bountiful harvest, poor soil can leave your plants vulnerable to cracking and other issues.
Heirloom Tomato Plant Care
When it comes to sunlight, heirloom tomatoes are one of the hungriest plants out there, along with plants like sunflowers or corn. These are plants that need full, direct sunlight all day long. Pay attention to any shadows cast by neighboring trees or buildings when you plan your tomato patch, and make sure your plants will get the benefit of a full day of unfiltered sun.
Healthy soil is a critical component of thriving heirloom tomato plants. Tomato plants will yield the greatest harvest in rich, loamy soil that allows roots to penetrate deeply. If your soil is heavy clay, use raised beds or container culture. Add compost, leaf mold, or manure up to 50% to blend with the native garden soil.
Keeping your tomatoes well-watered is a must for heirloom tomatoes, especially once they set fruit. Watering deeply will encourage deep root systems. Assuming you did a good job preparing the soil, drainage should be excellent, so keep an eye on the moisture level and never let plants dry out. Allowing the soil to vacillate between moist and dry causes problems in fruit development, including cracking and blossom end rot. Use drip irrigation to further limit airborne diseases like blight.
Temperature and Humidity
Heirloom tomatoes need warm temperatures to grow. Planting them too early won't give you earlier fruits; wait until night temperatures are at least 60 degrees F before planting outdoors. Humid conditions don't bother heirloom tomatoes.
Heirloom tomatoes are heavy feeders and need regular fertilizing to bloom and fruit. Organic and chemical balanced all-purpose fertilizers are both acceptable and a matter of personal preference.
Tomato leaves are toxic to dogs, cats, and horses. Ingestion may cause severe gastrointestinal upset, weakness, or slow heart rate. Barring allergies, tomato fruits show no toxicity to any species.
Varieties of Heirloom Tomatoes
There are hundreds of varieties of heirloom tomatoes, and the cultivar names are as colorful as the fruits themselves.
- Brandywine is a gateway variety for many new to heirloom tomato gardening. The giant pinkish-red ruffled fruits, tender skin, and juicy complex flavor might remind you of a piece of Willy Wonka chewing gum: sweet, followed by tangy and spicy, followed by savory and umami flavors, all in one magnificent bite.
- Black Krim tomatoes originated from Krim, Russia, and quickly gained a wide following with their sweet, robust flavor and handsome maroon fruits.
- Aunt Ruby's German Green tomatoes stay green until harvest, which might fool hungry squirrels but not your tastebuds: these large beefsteak tomatoes are the perfect blend of sweet and tangy.
Heirloom Tomatoes vs. Hybrid Tomatoes
Heirloom tomatoes and hybrid tomatoes look the same and have the same growing requirements. However, you cannot save seeds from hybrids and expect them to grow true-to-type. Check your plant or seed packet labels if you wish to save seeds.
Heirloom tomatoes are ready to be picked just before their color peak. Leaving them on the vine too long encourages cracking. Tomatoes that stay green upon ripening can be a little tricky to judge; usually the color shifts from flat mint green to bright chartreuse or streaky green. The fruits will also soften as they approach their peak.
Pruning heirloom tomatoes can increase plant productivity in the garden. Remove suckers at the base of the plant to direct the plant's energy to produce fewer, but larger fruits. Heirloom tomatoes grow quite large and need staking for support. By reducing the number of fruiting branches down to four or five with pruning, your plants will be manageable and individual fruits will be larger than without pruning.
Tomato cuttings root readily. As you prune away suckers, plant them in the soil or root them in water. They will form roots and begin to grow as separate plants within a week.
How to Grow Heirloom Tomatoes From Seed
Heirloom tomatoes are easy to grow from seed. Use moist, sterile potting mix, and press the seeds lightly into the soil. Germination takes place in about a week if temperatures are between 70 and 75 degrees F.
Potting and Repotting
Use premium potting soil for potting tomatoes. Plants will need repotting frequently in warm weather, so check the drainage hole for roots to prevent plants from becoming root-bound.
How to Grow Heirloom Tomatoes in Pots
Heirloom tomatoes growing in containers will need more frequent watering and fertilization than those growing in the ground. Use a large 24-inch pot for healthy root systems. Fertilize every two weeks with an all-purpose 10-10-10 fertilizer.