Laundry detergent ingredients have evolved from bar soaps made of animal fat and lye to scrubbing chemicals and enzymatic stain fighters. Today, there are both natural and synthetic detergent options that will keep your laundry looking and smelling fresh. Find out more about basic laundry detergent ingredients and how they work.
Basic Detergent Formulas
Every detergent manufacturer has secret ingredients and mixtures to produce their specific brands. Many of these ingredients can be manufactured from plants; others are petroleum-based. It is the amount of each ingredient and how they are combined that affect the cleaning ability of the detergent.
Alkalies, a major component in most laundry detergents, are soluble salts and a base that reacts with an acid to neutralize it. They are effective in removing dirt and stains from fabric without excessive rubbing. Soluble salts of an alkali metal, such as potassium or sodium, are good grease removers. They form an emulsion of the oily or solid particles that are held in suspension in wash water to be rinsed away. When added to the laundry detergent, the alkalies react with the fats in the formula to make soap.
The first soap and detergent makers used plant ashes to produce alkalis. Today they are chemically produced by running electricity through salt water to produce sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or caustic soda and potassium hydroxide (KOH) or caustic potash. These are the most commonly used alkalies in soaps and detergents.
Alkaline substances vary in their strength with the strongest causing burns and internal injuries if swallowed. But, because all detergents are correctly formulated to ensure alkalies neutralize with other ingredients, this shouldn't be a cause of concern.
Some varieties are:
- Mild alkali is baking soda (sodium bicarbonate).
- Moderate alkalies include household ammonia, borax, and trisodium phosphate (TSP).
- Strong alkalies include washing soda (sodium carbonate) and lye (caustic soda).
Surfactants and Anti-Redepositing Agents
Surfactants are one of the major components of laundry and cleaning products. In washing machines, surfactants work by lifting dirt and oils off the fabric and attaching it to the water, so the dirt gets rinsed away when the water drains out of the machine. They break up stains and suspend the dirt in the water to prevent the redeposition of the dirt onto the surface.
They work like an oil and vinegar salad dressing. They do not mix unless shaken vigorously in the bottle, and they separate almost immediately afterward. The same is true when washing clothes. Surfactants stick to the soil in clothing, making it dispersible and able to be removed with the wash water. As the water swishes around, the oil is lifted up into the water and swished away
In anionic surfactants, the head of the molecule is negatively charged. This particular type of surfactant is very good at removing oily dirt and stains unless used in water that is full of minerals, including calcium and magnesium. The minerals keep the anionic surfactant from working properly. You'll see anionic surfactants listed as alkyl sulfates, alkyl ethoxylate sulfates, and soaps in the ingredient list.
If you have hard water, you will get better cleaning results with a non-ionic surfactant. These surfactant molecules have no electrical charge. You'll find these surfactants listed as ethers of fatty alcohols on the label. You might find them combined with anionic surfactants to complement and boost cleaning action.
Types of surfactants include:
- Alkyl sulfates (anionic)
- Alkyl ethoxylate sulfates (anionic)
- Ethers of fatty alcohol (non-ionic)
Functional Materials in Laundry Detergent
- PH modifiers to balance acids and bases in water
- Optical brighteners (bleach alternative) to improve the appearance of whiteness by absorbing UV light and giving off a blue tint
- Water conditioners to manage hard water and inhibit dye transfer
- Suds control with soap or silicone to prevent excess foaming
- Preservatives to prevent microbial growth
Enzymes can be natural or processed chemically. Different enzymes target specific soils, and the catalytic action breaks the soil into smaller molecules to be washed away.
- Protease: Degrades protein-based soils
- Amylase: Degrades starch-based or carbohydrate soils
- Cellulase: Breaks down cotton fibers to release soils
- Lipase: Degrades fat-based soils
- Mannanase: Degrades food-based stains
- Pectinase: Degrades fruit-based stains
Enzymes are naturally occurring; they help bread rise faster and increase wine yields. The introduction of enzymes into laundry detergents dramatically changed how we do laundry. Enzymes allow us to use lower water temperatures and less detergent to get clothes clean. For many years, the only way to achieve clean laundry was to use boiling water and harsh lye-based soaps.
Today, scientists have created industrial biotechnology or "white biotech," which uses enzyme cells or components of cells to generate industrially-useful enzymes for laundry detergents. Industrial biotechnology has the potential to save the planet billions of tons of CO2 emissions per year and support building a sustainable future.
Fragrances influence the perception of cleanliness.
Colorant or Dyes
Dyes are added for the aesthetic appeal to the customer. They perform no role in cleaning.
How Detergents Work to Clean Clothes
To get the best results from any laundry detergent, there is a three-fold process of chemical energy, thermal energy, and mechanical energy that must be used when washing clothes.
The chemical energy is, of course, the laundry detergent. The ingredients in the laundry detergent you choose will affect the final results. Less expensive detergents have fewer or no enzymes. Fewer enzymes equal less cleaning power.
Thermal energy pertains to water temperature. Different detergents are formulated to work best at different temperatures. Read the directions to select the best product for your laundry. While all soaps benefit from warmer water, we know that heat sometimes ruins certain fabric types. As a result, some laundry detergent formulas have been designed to compensate for the lack of heat, with more surfactants and alkalies to stick to the soils and convert the cold fats, so it still cleans without the heat.
How to Select the Best Detergent
There are dozens of choices on the laundry detergent shelves. How do you choose? The best choice is the one that suits your family’s needs in terms of effectiveness on specific soils, personal preference for fragrance, form (powder, liquid or single dose), and price.
Here's how to start. Assess your family's laundry, including the types of stains and the amount of body soil. If most of the garments are only lightly soiled with few stains, you might find that a less expensive detergent and a good stain remover is all you need. If you have heavy soil, gym clothes with lots of body odor, and lots of food/grease/outside stains, you need a heavy-duty detergent.
Next, read the laundry detergent labels, or go online to read the ingredients. It is important to look for surfactants and enzymes to remove soil and stains. Bargain brands have fewer of these components and will not clean as well. You might find that having two formulas on your laundry shelf will serve your needs: one detergent for lightly soiled clothes and one for heavily soiled clothes.
Although most detergents will work in cold water, it is better to choose one formulated for cold water if you plan to use cold water exclusively.
You can now find liquids and powders in concentrated or ultra formulas. Although packaged in smaller sizes, they provide the same cleaning power as their larger unconcentrated counterparts. To determine the correct amount to use, follow the label instructions and use the companion measuring cup or scoop. These products simply have the extra water or fillers removed making them easier and less expensive to ship and store. The single-dose packs and pods are concentrated even further and might actually save you money by preventing overuse.
Many people chose their laundry detergent based on scent. Just remember that "smelling clean" is not the same as being clean. Be sure that soil is actually being removed and not just covered up with perfume.
Caustic Ingestion. Merck Manual.
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