How Does a Light Switch Work?

Types of Light Switches and Replacement Tips

Woman turning off light switch on green wallpapered wall, close-up

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Most rooms in your home will have one or more wall switches, also called light switches, used to control lighting fixtures or electrical outlets. Our recessed fixtures, pendant lights, chandeliers, and wall sconces are usually turned off and on by flipping a wall switch, usually positioned near a doorway. In rooms without mounted light fixtures, that wall switch may control an electrical outlet where a floor lamp is plugged in. We don't usually give the light switch itself much thought, but knowing something about how wall switches work and the different kinds of switches available will be important if you want to make repairs or replacements to the system.

What Is a Wall Switch?

A wall switch is an electrical device that is installed in an electrical outlet box mounted in the wall, used to control the flow of electricity from the power source to one or more permanent light fixtures or wall outlets. When it "closes" the circuit, the switch allows a light fixture or outlet to be energized by flowing current; when "opening" the circuit, the switch turns off the light fixture or outlet by interrupting the current flow.

How a Light Switch Works

A wall switch is designed with a mechanism that controls the flow of "hot" electrical current through a circuit, allowing you to turn a light fixture or other device on and off by closing (ON) or opening (OFF) the continuous electrical pathway. Unlike other electrical devices, a wall switch is installed so it connects only to hot wires, not the neutral circuit wires. The exception to this is when a light switch integrates some kind of other features, such as a lighted toggle lever or a timer feature. In this case, the switch may require a neutral wire connection along with the hot wire connections. In addition to the hot wire connections, light switches now require a connection to the circuit's grounding pathway. But in older installations, it's not uncommon to find wall switches that lack the green grounding screw that is now mandated.

Light Switch Wiring Basics

Once you unscrew the switch's plate, you'll find three different colored electrical wires. Each wire is important to keep the voltage and electrical flow stable. Here's where each wire should be attached:

  • White/Neutral: The white neutral wire is attached to the silver screw.
  • Black/Hot: The black hot wire is attached to a brass screw. Note that sometimes the hot wire is red.
  • Green/Ground: The green grounding (or bare copper) wire, is attached to the green screw terminal or to the electrical box.

Parts of a Wall Switch

If you inspect a disconnected wall switch, the following parts will be evident:

  • A metal strap supports the switch body and allows you to attach the switch to an electrical box mounted in the wall.
  • This strap will have an integrated green grounding screw, to which the circuit's grounding wires will be connected.
  • The switch body is a small rectangular hard vinyl plastic unit, to which two or more wire connection terminals will be mounted. The back of the switch body may also feature push-fit wire connection ports, though professional electricians normally do not use these ports in favor of screw terminal connections, which are more secure.
  • If you were to open the switch body, you would find an inner gateway between the wire connection terminals that opens and closes the circuit pathway when the switch lever is flipped from one position to the other.

There are different designs used for the inner gateway on switches. Older types are purely mechanical, with a metal arm controlled by springs. These types can wear out as the springs lose their resiliency. A type of switch developed in the 1960s used a vial of mercury inside to conduct electricity. These types do not have the characteristic "snap" when the lever is flipped, and they are considerably more durable than mechanical snap switches. Sometimes marketed as "quiet" switches, these were considerably more expensive, but they rarely wore out. These switches were phased out because of the risks associated with using mercury. Modern switches no longer have the old clicking sound; they do operate more quietly than old click switches.

Finally, some wall switches now use microcircuitry rather than a physical mechanism to control the flow of electricity. This type of design is most common in dimmers and "smart" switches that offer programmable or automatic features, or wifi connectivity. Smart switches may require a neutral wire connection as well as traditional hot wire and ground wire connections.

3 Basic Types of Light Switches

There are three basic kinds of wall switches that are used to control light fixtures: simple single-pole (ON/OFF) switches, three-way switches, and four-way switches. Each of these types comes in different operating styles, including toggle, rocker, or push-button. They may also be available in dimmer-style switches that allow for variable control of a light fixture's illumination level. It's important to choose a switch that provides the function you need.

Single-Pole Switches

The most commonly found switch is the single-pole switch, which turns lights (or a wall outlet) OFF or ON from just one wall location. For that reason, they're sometimes referred to as single-location switches. A single-pole switch is most easily identified by the ON/OFF markings printed on the switch toggle lever—no other type of switch has these markings.

In technical terms, this simple ON/OFF switch is known as a single-pole, single-throw (SPST) switch. "Single-pole" means that only one hot wire can be connected to it. "Single-throw" means that when you flip the level, it connects to only one other outgoing wire—the wire going to the light fixture or switched outlet.

The Single-Pole Switch Mechanism

In single-pole switches, there is a spring-loaded metal gate inside the switch that opens and closes the electrical circuit leading to the light fixture. When you toggle the level to the ON position, the gate snaps closed, completes the circuit, and allows power to flow through the switch and onward to the light fixture. When you flip the toggle lever to the OFF position, the gateway opens up, interrupting the flow of power to the light fixture.

Three-Way Switches

A three-way switch is used when you want to control a light fixture from two wall locations, such as at the top and bottom of a stairway, both ends of a hallway, or from two entry doors in a large room. This switch does not have ON/OFF markings on its lever.

In addition to a green grounding screw, three-way switches have three screw terminals that serve very different functions, depending on where the switch is located in the circuit configuration. One dark-colored screw terminal, called the common, is connected to a hot wire that either delivers power to the switch from the power source or is connected to a hot wire that delivers power onward to the light fixture. The other two screw terminals are lighter in color (usually brass), and these connect to a pair of wires, called travelers, that run between the two switches.

The Three-Way Switch Mechanism

Internally, a three-way switch has a mechanical configuration shaped like a "V." The point of the V is the terminal where the hot wire coming from your service panel (the line wire), or leading onward to the light fixture (the load wire), is connected. The two traveler wires running between the two switches are connected to traveler screw terminals linked to the open arms on the V.

This essentially means there are two possible pathways by which electricity can flow to the light fixture. When the runner terminals line up internally, the light is ON, but when the switch levers are in different positions, no continuous pathway exists and the light is OFF. This configuration allows either of the wall switches to turn the light fixture ON or OFF at any time.

In technical terms, a three-way switch is known as a single pole, double-throw (SPDT) switch. "Single-pole," again, means that only one "hot" wire is connected to it. But this switch also has two other wires connected to it, and the term "double-throw" means that flipping the lever toggles the electrical pathway back and forth between the other two outgoing traveler wires that run between the two switches.

Four-Way Switches

A four-way switch is used when you want to control a light fixture from three or more locations. Many homes have no need for such a configuration, but a large home with a great room or a spacious open floor plan may find it useful to control a ceiling light from three or more locations. For example, a large ceiling chandelier can be controlled by one switch at the front entry, another at the passage door leading to the attached garage, and a third switch positioned at the end of the hallway leading to the bedrooms. Or, in a long hallway, it can be useful to control the hallway light from switches positioned near each bedroom door.

A four-way switch is always used in conjunction with a pair of three-way switches—one located at the front end of the circuit where power is delivered from the source, and the second at the point where power runs onward to the light fixture. In between the two three-way switches is one or more four-way switches.

The Four-Way Switch Mechanism

Visually, a four-way switch can be identified by four screw terminals on the body of the switch (in addition to the green grounding screw). This means that two hot wires (or potentially hot) wires are connected to it from the power source—which in this case are the traveler wires arriving from the upstream switch in the circuit configuration.

Understanding exactly how a four-way switch and two three-way switches work together to control a light fixture from all three locations can be tricky to visualize. Essentially, the four-way switch can be thought of as having an "X"-shaped inner mechanism that toggles the electrical pathway back and forth between the already established pathways between the two three-way switches. It can, therefore, reverse a pathway that is complete to interrupt the current flow (thereby turning the light fixture OFF), or reverse a pathway that is broken to complete the circuit (thereby turning the light fixture ON). In other words, a four-way switch serves to open a closed electrical pathway or close an open pathway.

Different Switch Designs

All types of wall switches—single-pole, three-way, and four-way—come in several different types of designs.

  • The classic design is the simple toggle-lever switch, in which the mechanism is operated in a simple up-down fashion.
  • A common variation is the rocker switch, in which the toggle lever has evolved into a wide rocker arm that snaps up and down to open and close the circuit.
  • Push-button switches were once common in older homes, but are now rarely used except when a vintage look is desired.
  • Dimmer switches, available for single-pole, three-way, and four-way switches, allow you to vary the amount of current passing through the circuit to allow variable light intensity. These switches use a dial, slider, or touchpad mechanism to control the current passing through them.
  • Lighted switches have an internal diode bulb that glows when the switch is in the ON position. This alerts you when a hidden light fixture is operating, such as a wall switch that controls lights in a basement or garage.
  • Smart switches are available in several types to offer additional functionality, such as motion sensor operation, timer functions, or a voice-activated command system such as Alexa or Echo.
Light switch with two dimmer handles on gray wall

The Spruce / Leticia Almeida

Amazon Smart Devices

Replacement Considerations

If you want to replace one of your existing switches with a new switch, a timer switch, or a dimmer switch, the new control needs to have the same functionality as the switch it's replacing. That is, a single-pole wall switch requires a single-pole dimmer or timer, and a three-way wall switch requires a three-way dimmer or timer. However, four-way dimmers and timers are not currently available. In four-way switch configurations, you can replace one or both of the three-way switches with a dimmer or timer, but the four-way switch will need to remain a simple toggle switch.

The new switch also needs to be rated for the voltage and amperage carried by the circuit wires. Embossed printing on the switch body will tell you what level of current can be safely handled by the switch. Most residential wall switches will be rated for 115/125 voltage, and 15 or 20 amps.

If you attempt replacement yourself, it is important to remember that the power is never fully OFF in a switch circuit—unless you turn the power off at the circuit breaker. Just because a wall switch is flipped OFF and the light fixture is not illuminated does not mean the wires are not carrying power. The best practice is to always turn off the circuit breaker, even if you are just replacing a light bulb or two. This will eliminate the possibility that someone might turn on the power to the fixture by flipping a wall switch.

Finally, remember that the current electrical code now requires that all wall switches be attached to the circuit's grounding wires. This can slightly complicate the installation of the new switch if the old switch had no such connection. You will need to figure out a way to link the new switch to the circuit's grounding system, which often means the installation of a grounding pigtail that links the new switch to the circuit's bare copper grounding wire or to the metal wall box.

The latest generation of "smart" wall switches offer some amazing functions, but installation can be complicated by the fact that these devices often require a neutral wire connection. And the switch bodies are sometimes larger than standard switches, which may require a larger wall box. Make sure that you really need the functionality of a sophisticated smart switch before installing one.

If you don't have a good understanding of electrical circuits and experience with simple electrical fixture replacements, it is best to call a professional to replace a wall switch.

How Much Does It Cost To Replace a Light Switch?

The cost to replace a light switch is typically between $100 to $200 for a professional and licensed electrician to handle the job. The cost could be higher depending on the complexity of the project or if you want a switch that has a dimmer, timer, or smart functions. If you have previous electrical experience and choose to replace a light switch yourself, the cost to do this type of DIY project would be about the price of the light switch itself.

Article Sources
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  1. Average Cost to Install a Light Switch. HomeAdvisor.