Lima beans, also known as butter beans and chad beans, grow much the same as green beans, they tend to take longer to mature. The smaller varieties are quicker, which is why you see "baby" lima beans for sale more often than the larger beans; there's a quicker turnover. Lima beans have been cultivated in their namesake Lima, Peru for over 600 years.
There are bush varieties and pole lima beans and, like green beans, the bush types will begin setting pods sooner. Bush lima beans also tend to set their entire crop at once, so you will only be able to harvest from them for a couple of weeks. If you can succession plant a row every 3 - 4 weeks, you will be able to prolong the harvest season. You could also plant both a row of bush beans and a seeding of a pole variety. That way you can start the season with the early maturing bush beans and continue harvesting throughout summer from the pole beans.
All varieties are high in protein as well as several vitamins and minerals. They can be used fresh, frozen or dried.
- Lima beans have the familiar bean compound leaves of 3, or trifoliate, with oval leaflets that are about 2 - 3 in. long.
- Flowers are white or yellow and form loose racemes or clusters. The resulting pods are curved and flatter than common green beans.
Lima beans, butter beans
Although lima beans can be perennial, they are not frost-hardy, and since they expend so much energy producing pods, they are grown as an annual crop.
You'll need a spot with full sun, to get the most from your Lima beans. They need warm temperatures and a long day length. Full sun will also keep the vines dry and less prone to fungal problems.
Mature Plant Size
The size of the mature plants will depend on the variety you are growing. Pole varieties will climb at least 8 ft. Bush types grow 2 - 3 ft. tall and may need staking, when they are covered in pods.
Day to Harvest
There is wide fluctuation in the length of season needed to grow lima beans. Some bush varieties, like Fordhook, can begin producing in 60 days. The heat-loving pole beans, like Christmas Lima, won't start setting pods until about 90 days. If you live in a short season area, these might not be the type for your garden. But you can always experiment and try starting the seeds indoors, as discussed below.
Begin harvesting when the pods feel full. They won't plump up like green beans, but you should still be able to see a slight bump. Hold the vine end when pulling off the pods or you could take a big section of vine with them.
Tips for Growing Lima Beans
Soil: As legumes, Lima beans don't need overly rich soil or much supplemental fertilizer. The soil should be well draining and moderately rich in organic matter. Heavy clay soil can pose growing problems because lima beans have deep, expansive roots and they don't like to sit in wet soil. Soil pH should be in the neutral range of 6.0 to 6.8.
Lima beans can be a bit temperamental about temperature. They don't like extremes and grow best in climates that stay around 70 F. for several months. However, they can handle warm temperatures better than prolonged cool temperature.
Planting: Lima beans have big seeds, and they can be direct sown 1 - 2 in. deep. Space bush varieties about 4 - 6 in. apart, although you could also scatter the seeds in a wide row and thin, if necessary.
If you have a short season and want to grow pole limas, you should consider starting the seed indoors 3 - 4 weeks before your last frost date, in peat or paper pots. Or warm the soil in the spring with a layer of black plastic and then direct sow the seeds with some protection, like a row cover or a windbreak of plastic or straw bales, around the seedlings. The soil needs to be at least 65 F., for good germination. If you are not pre-warming the soil, wait until 2-3 weeks after your last frost date, to direct seed.
Caring for Your Lima Bean Plants
Pole beans will need sturdy support. The vines can easily grow 10 ft. or more and become heavy with pods. Plant 4 - 6 seeds on each side of a trellis or teepee.
Keep the soil moist until germination, then make sure the plants get at least 1 in. of water per week. In hot, dry weather, water more frequently to keep the ground cool, and mulch around the roots. Pay extra attention once the plants are in flower and start setting pods; they will drop them if they experience a drought at this point.
Legumes generally do not need extra fertilizer, especially if the soil is already rich. However since Lima beans have a long growing season, it helps to give them a side dressing of compost or composted manure, or a dose of organic fertilizer, mid-season. These are slow releasing and will help the plants continue for the rest of the season.
Pests and Problems of Lima Beans
Pests: The usual bean pests will seek out your plants. Heading the list are bean beetles and aphids. Keep watch and tackle any problems while they are small.
Many four-footed pests also love tender, young bean seedlings. Fencing is recommended. Groundhogs can defoliate entire teepees in a few minutes.
Disease: The biggest disease problem is root rot, which you should be able to avoid with well-draining soil. If you have a particularly rainy season, be sure to turn off your automatic irrigation.
Suggested Lima Bean Varieties for Growing
Breeders are continually working to improve yields and come up with shorter season varieties. Some are better for long, warm season climates and others excel in more temperate zones. There are many heirloom varieties still being offered, which can perform as well as the "new and improved."
- "Christmas": These are large, burgundy and white beans with a potato-like texture. They are considered heirloom. (90 days)
- "Jackson Wonder Butterbean": Buff-colored beans with burgundy speckles. Handles heat well Also good for a shorter season. (66 days)
- "King of the Garden": They are the most commonly grown. Large white beans that are produced over a long season. (88 days)
- "Henderson’s Bush": A very old, very reliable variety with small white beans. They keep producing for weeks. (65 days)
- "Fordhook 242": They are a heavy producer of medium sized green beans. They're a good choice for cooler climates. (72 days)