The iris is grand and beautiful. Named after the Greek goddess who rode rainbows, it comes in more than 300 species in the genus Iris. Bearded irises (Iris germanica) are the most popular and bold, while Siberian Irises (Iris sibirica) add a gentle eastern flare to the garden. The glorious history behind the iris paves the way for a flourishing, reliable future. Ideal for the beginner gardener, it is easy to grow and flourishes amongst companion plants that also bloom in early summer such as roses, lilies, peonies, salvia, and allium, all of which make lush bouquets. While most irises will bloom in June, some bearded hybrids may flower later in the summer for a second time. Learn to plant these rhizomes at the right time, place, and fashion. Once established, they will spread for generations to come and attract many a butterfly and hummingbird.
Plant in Late Summer/Early Fall
Most growers distribute iris rhizomes in August or September when nighttime temperatures range between 40 and 50 degrees Fahrenheit. Plant at this time so they can settle in the soil and get established before winter. Yet if you are given or able to purchase them in spring or early summer, plant them as soon as possible.
Find Full Sun
Choose a spot that receives full sun. While they can tolerate part sun, they will not bloom as prolifically without abundant light. Ensure that bearded irises especially are among the tallest in the bed, or planted apart in a separate bed, because any shade may stunt their growth or bloom.
Establish in Well-Drained Soil
Plant in fertile soil that is neutral to slightly acidic. "Irises prefer wet feet, but dry knees," according to Farmer's Almanac. Therefore make sure the soil is well-drained as irises do not thrive in wet soil in winter. Loosen soil using a tiller or garden fork about 12 inches deep. An optional step is to mix thoroughly two to four inches of compost. Be aware that bulb fertilizer, while encouraging healthy root growth, may be based in bone meal, which attracts critters to dig up newly planted rhizomes.
Let the Tops Peek Through the Soil Surface
Plant rhizomes individually or in groups of three with the noses facing each other. For each, dig a hole 10 inches wide and four inches deep. Create a small ridge down the middle. Depending on the variety, space three inches apart or up to two feet apart. Spread each rhizome's roots to encourage well-established spread. Plant bare-root irises horizontally and expose the top above ground.
If your zone experiences very hot summers, plant just below the soil surface and cover the backs of the rhizomes with a little more soil. Make sure not to plant too deep because they need to be exposed to the changing temperatures. Gently step on them with your foot. To avoid root rot, do not mulch. Water well upon planting and a bit less once established the following year; while irises are drought-tolerant, regular watering through hot summers is recommended. Take care not to soak "their knees." Follow these steps and you'll find irises to be a bright spot in your future for springs and summers to come.
Should I use bone meal when planting my spring flowering bulbs? University of New Hampshire Extension.