When you buy a rose plant, it often looks nothing like the beautiful plant you imagine blooming in your yard. Instead, the rose you purchase may be bundled in a plastic bag filled with sawdust or peat moss and have short, leafless canes. It may even come bare root, resembling a thorny dead stick. But these roses are not nearly as fragile as they appear. However, a little extra effort at planting time to prepare your rose's future home will pay off through a healthier plant and more blooms.
Conditions for Good Roses
Choose a site with full sun. Six or more hours of sun is recommended. Some roses will grow in partial shade, but most roses bloom their best if they are in a spot that gets sun all day. The exception to this rule is when growing roses in areas with extremely hot growing seasons and limited water. In this case, your roses will appreciate the relief offered by some afternoon shade.
Roses are not fussy about soil, but since they are heavy feeders, a rich loam is ideal. The soil pH can be slightly acidic to neutral (5.5 to 7.0). It is usually advisable to work in several inches of organic matter, especially if you have poor soil or heavy clay, Make sure the soil you plant your roses in has good drainage. Roses need regular deep watering, but their roots will rot if left to sit in wet soil.
Avoid planting roses under trees, both due to shade as well as possible damage from falling branches. Choose a site that's protected from wind, as strong winds can damage the growth of the plant.
Finally, do not crowd your rose bushes. The more airflow around the plants, the less likely they will be to get disfiguring fungal diseases such as black spot and powdery mildew on their leaves. In fact, plant roses at least 3 feet from other plants to avoid competition for soil nutrients as well.
Equipment / Tools
- Shovel or trowel
- Work gloves
- Bone meal or superphosphate
- New rose plant
- Compost (if needed)
- Granular rose fertilizer
Prepare the Planting Hole
Dig a hole that is slightly wider but equally in depth to the rose's root ball. This will generally be about 15 to 18 inches deep by 18 to 24 inches wide.
Mix a handful of bone meal or superphosphate into the soil you removed and save it for refilling the hole once the rose is planted. This will help the rose bush acclimate to its new home. Don’t feed it with anything else at planting time. You want the roots to take hold before the top starts sending out a lot of new growth.
Mixing in some compost or other organic matter with the removed soil is a good idea if it is poor in quality.
Prepare the Rose
If your rose came in a container, gently remove it from the pot and loosen the roots a bit so they will start to extend out as soon as they are planted. Gripping the plant by the base (wearing gloves), then inverting the pot usually allows you to easily slip it out of the pot.
If your rose is bare-root, unpackage the roots and inspect them. Clip away any roots that are broken or soft with rot. Soak the roots for about 12 hours before planting to ensure they don't dry out.
If you are transplanting a larger rose, prune the canes down to 6 to 8 inches long. This will allow the rose bush to put more of its energy into its roots, rather than trying to keep excessive top growth alive. Roses are best transplanted in early spring, before new growth begins.
Plant the Rose
For bareroot roses, make a mound in the center of the hole, using a mixture of the removed soil and bone meal. Make the mound high enough so that when you place the rose bush on top of it, the knobby graft union is barely below the soil level. For container-grown roses, place the rootball in the hole, making sure the graft union is slightly below the soil line. When the plant settles, the graft union should be fully buried, about 1 inch underground.
Plant roses when temperatures are between 40 and 60 degrees to give the plant time to settle in and form strong roots before summer's heat arrives. Plant roses after all chances of freezing temperatures have passed.
For bareroot roses, spread the roots down the sides of the mound. Begin filling in the hole with soil and superphosphate, keeping the roots as spread out as possible. For container-grown roses, gentle separate the root ball in the planting hole, and fill with soil. Water the soil when the hole is just about filled to help settle it. Continue filling the hole and gently pat the soil down over the root zone to slightly compact it.
Apply Water and Mulch
Water deeply and apply 1 to 2 inches of mulch over the root zone of the rose around its base. Water new roses every other day, especially in dry weather, to get your rose plant established. You will know the rose has acclimated when it starts to send out new growth.
Care for Your Rose
Continue to water your rose every week to encourage a deep root system. Feed it with a granular fertilizer mixed into the soil when it starts to leaf out in spring and after each flush of blooms, or about every six weeks throughout the growing season. Stop feeding about six weeks before your first frost date, but continue watering until the ground is frozen. In frost-free climates, water the rose all winter.