Painting over stain is a familiar project that cleans and freshens up surfaces. The opposite, applying stain over paint, produces a highly flexible decorative finish with fun, even surprising, effects. Staining over paint is suitable for smaller projects like refurbishing chairs, planters, window trim, desks, and doors. Fine-tune the appearance by adjusting the amount of sanding or by using different stains and application methods. Transform a thrift store nightstand into an heirloom-style piece with rich, dark undertones. Stain a child's painted bedroom dresser and turn it into adult-worthy guest room furniture with a glazed, lacquered look. Or streak dark stain over a small painted table for a dramatic, wood-like grain. The possibilities are endless, and it's always fun to experiment with this simple, low-cost project.
Tools and Supplies You Will Need
- Oil-based or water-based gel stain
- Painted work material
- Stain application device such as a natural or synthetic bristle brush, foam sponge brush, cotton cloth, or roller frame and roller cover
- Drop cloth
- Eye protection
- Latex gloves or similar waterproof gloves such as nitrile gloves
- Clean rags or tack cloth
- Plastic sandwich bags
- Sharpie marker
Prepare the Work Area
The odor of stain can be unpleasant and even harmful in closed conditions. So make sure that the work area is well-ventilated. Lay a drop cloth under the item and extend the cloth a couple of feet beyond to catch stain splatter.
Unscrew fixtures, hinges, and all other items that will not be stained. Bag them and their screws, label on the bag with the Sharpie, and set them safely aside.
Test and Assess the Painted Surface
Experiment on a sample remote area since paint sheen and general surface conditions dramatically affect the outcome. Greater gloss means that the surface has less porosity. The stain will more easily slide off, resulting in a lighter color. Flat sheen's greater porosity absorbs more stain and turns darker. Silicone caulking and some types of glues completely shed stain and result in light spots. Areas of unsealed wood putty or wood filler readily absorb the stain and produce dark, noticeable spots.
Sand the Surface
Sanding the surface gives it more tooth, or porosity, to grab the stain. Not all surfaces need to be sanded. This is done for decorative effect, not for durability, so sand as much or as little as you wish. Clean the surface with a clean cloth or tack cloth.
Mix the Stain
As with paint, stain carries pigments and must be thoroughly mixed. Stir the stain carefully with a clean wooden stirring stick. Since bubbles may form, let fifteen minutes pass before you begin using the stain.
Apply Stain to the Paint
Gel stains are less viscous than conventional stains, making it easier to dispense the product on the surface and control drips. A little stain goes a long way, especially on these less absorbent painted surfaces. Dip just the tip of the brush bristles in the stain. Transfer the brush to the painted surface, starting at one edge, and brush gently. If the desired effect is dark stain, aim for multiple thin layers of stain rather than one single thick layer.
Stained surfaces tend to dry to touch within two hours. Allow for two hours between coats. Cooler temperatures will add to the drying time.
Vary Stain Over Paint for Different Effects
- With oil-based stains, use only natural applicators like horse hair brushes or cotton pads. With water-based stains, you can use either natural applicators or synthetic applicators like foam sponge brushes.
- Using a rough-bristled, inexpensive chip brush will give the surface a heavy, streaked look.
- For the smoothest stained paint, use a staining pad or a high-quality natural bristle paint brush.
- With a clean, dry cloth, vigorously wipe freshly applied stain in the direction of the grain to blend and deepen it.
- Stain over the raised texture of fancy crown molding, ceiling medallions, or the delicate tracery of furniture filigrees. The stain will highlight the raised sections and create visual depth.
- Rolling with a thick-nap roller cover will give the item a stippled look.
- Chipped paint produces the highest color contrast since the stain soaks into and darkens the areas of bare wood while remaining lighter colored on the painted areas.
- Try a sponge for a marbled effect. With a gloved hand, soak the sponge with stain, squeeze it out, then dab it on the work surface.