Hybrid tea roses (Rosa x hybrida) are the product of a cross between hybrid perpetual roses and old-fashioned tea roses. They are set apart by their large, high buds and tall, straight stems. The hybrid tea rose has long, pointed buds that open by slowly unfurling. Hybrid tea roses generally produce only one blossom at the end of each stem rather than clusters of flowers, and they have an open habit.
Virtually all hybrid tea roses are repeat bloomers throughout the growing season and offer some degree of fragrance. Hybrid tea roses grow quickly and reach their mature size of three to eight feet tall within three to four years depending on the variety and the growing conditions. You can plant them year-round, ideally in fall or in early spring when they are still dormant.
|Common Name||Hybrid tea roses|
|Botanical Name||Rosa x hybrida|
|Mature Size||3-8 ft. tall, 2-3 ft. wide|
|Soil Type||Loamy, well-drained|
|Bloom Time||Spring, summer, fall|
|Flower Color||All colors except true blue and black|
|Hardiness Zones||5-9 (USDA)|
|Native Area||Cultivar, no native range|
Hybrid Tea Rose Care
Hybrid tea roses are bud grafted onto hardy, disease-resistant rootstock. Their care regimens are similar to standard roses. They grow best in full sun, regular fertilization, and ample moisture.
To plant your hybrid tea rose, dig a planting hole and spread the roots over a mound created inside the hole. Fill the hole with organically rich soil, packing down the soil as you go to remove any air pockets. In northern climates, the graft union (the slight bulge at the bottom of the stem) should be planted one to two inches deep in the soil. In southern parts of the plant's range, the graft union should remain just above the soil level. Space plants about 24-36 inches apart to enable good air circulation.
Deadhead faded blooms to promote more blooming. Take care to properly overwinter your hybrid tea roses by ensuring adequate moisture and protecting the graft. Hybrid tea roses can be affected by various pests and diseases but are overall are easy to care for.
Hybrid tea roses bloom best in full sun but will tolerate partial sun. Full sun exposure improves the hybrid tea rose's bloom and general disease resistance.
Hybrid tea roses prefer acidic soil (6.0 to 6.5 pH) that is rich in organic matter. You should mulch the hybrid tea rose to cool its roots and conserve water. Apply a two- to three-inch layer of mulch in the spring. In warmer climates, mulch the hybrid tea rose when its leaf buds begin to swell.
One to two inches of water per week is usually sufficient for a hybrid tea rose, but this varies by climate and growing conditions. Hybrid tea roses grown in hot climates and sandy soil will need more frequent watering than cool coastal regions. It's best to water your hybrid tea rose when the top three inches of soil are dry. Apply water to the soil, not the leaves, to prevent disease, and water deeply to encourage root growth. Strong, deep roots will help your hybrid tea roses survive periods of drought.
Temperature and Humidity
The ideal temperature for a rose is 80.6° F. If your summers are particularly humid, purchase a mildew-resistant variety. Where summers are dry, purchase hybrid tea roses that are known for heat tolerance and have vigorous root systems.
Hybrid tea roses are heavy feeders and benefit from applications of fertilizer three times per year. Start feeding in early spring, a month before new growth starts or when you remove winter protection. The second application should be made during the first bloom period. The third application should be made in mid to late July.
Stop fertilizing about six to eight weeks before your first expected frost date to prevent damage to tender new growth when temperatures drop.
Choose a balanced fertilizer or one intended for roses. Iron is essential if the soil's pH is too high. Use an iron supplement in your fertilizer if the leaves turn yellow with green veins. An ideal fertilizer ratio for roses is 5-10-5 or 10-10-10 (the percentage of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, respectively).
Magnesium sulfate (Epsom salt) is thought to intensify flower color, deeper foliage color, and encourage flowering canes.
Types of Hybrid Tea Roses
Hundreds of varieties of hybrid tea roses are available to purchase at local garden centers and online through mail order nurseries and grower's websites. Here are our picks for the top ten varieties of hybrid tea roses.
Pruning hybrid tea roses is not unlike pruning other rose types. You can cut out dead, diseased, or damaged canes and scrawny, spindly canes of less than 1/2 inch diameter at any time. It's best to prune your roses in early spring just as new growth appears in late spring.
You should prune strong, healthy canes by about a third of their length, down to 12 to 24 inches. Hard pruning encourages strong stems and large flowers and opens and shapes the plant so it can direct more energy into producing flowers.
When harvesting rose blooms, keep a few leaves on the stem, making cuts about 1/4 inch above an outward-facing bud. Make the cuts at a 45-degree angle so that water runs off the cut ends.
Propagating Hybrid Tea Roses
Here's how to propagate a hybrid team rose by a stem cutting:
- Take a stem cutting from a strong rose cane that has three to four sets of five leaflets on its stem. Make the cut at a 45-degree angle.
- Remove the bottom set of leaves (from the part of the stem that will be buried in the potting soil).
- Dip the cut end into rooting hormone.
- Fill a small pot with moistened, sterile potting mix, and gently push the cutting into the mix.
- Place a few sticks or twigs around the perimeter of the pot to prevent the plastic bag from touching the stem (in the next step).
- Place the pot inside a clear plastic bag that is large enough so that the top of the cutting does not touch the top, and tie the bag closed to create a humid and moist greenhouse-like environment.
- Place the cutting in a shady location; do not let the soil dry out.
- Keep the plastic bag over the cutting until you begin to see new growth.
- When the cutting is actively growing or outgrows its pot, repot it into a larger pot.
- When the plant is large enough, be sure to harden it off before transplanting it outdoors.
How to Grow Hybrid Tea Roses From Seed
You can grow hybrid tea roses from seeds just like any rose. The seed-starting process begins with stratification, the process in which seeds are chilled in a refrigerator for six to eight weeks to simulate the natural conditions the seeds would experience in winter. Chilling the seeds encourages them to germinate faster once sown. Even with stratification, not all of your seeds will germinate.
Good garden sanitation is important to prepare a hybrid tea rose for winter. Remove dead canes and remove and discard diseased leaves from the plant and surrounding soil.
Mulching is essential to protect the graft union of the rootstock and named rose variety. This graft is usually at or just below the soil surface. An easy way to protect the graft is with a mound of garden soil six to eight inches tall poured in a cone shape over the center of the plant. The soil you use should come from another part of the garden or from freshly purchased garden soil. Remove the soil in spring before new growth begins.
Click Play to Learn How to Handle Common Rose Problems
Common Pests & Plant Diseases
Although some hybrid tea rose varieties are disease resistant, like many roses, they are susceptible to some diseases, like botrytis blight, black spot disease, and crown gall. Hybrid tea roses can attract pests like spider mites and Japanese beetles.
How to Get Hybrid Tea Roses to Bloom
Hybrid tea roses can bloom throughout the summer but environmental factors can affect the frequency of blooming. The best way to ensure blooming is for the plant to receive six to eight hours of sun per day. Sufficient water and fertilization is also essential for blooming. Deadheading faded blooms encourages growth and more blooms.
Common Problems With Hybrid Tea Roses
The most common problems with hybrid tea roses are related to fungus. Various forms of fungus, such as powdery mildew, can cause discoloration and holes in the leaves. While some hybrid tea roses are generally disease resistant, problems can arise.
Curling leaves are caused by a viral infection, leading to a downward leaf curl. The only way to treat the leaf-curling virus spread is to destroy the affected roses.
Leaves Turning Yellow
Generally, hybrid tea roses are most susceptible to problems related to black spot disease, which can turn leaves yellow.
Plant Leaves Falling Off
In addition to causing yellowing, black spot disease can cause hybrid tea rose leaves to fall off. Leaf drop can also be caused by fungus and mildew.
How long do hybrid tea roses live?
Hybrid tea roses belong to the early modern class of roses, meaning they typically live six to ten years. If you take excellent care of your rose, it can likely live longer.
What plants are similar to hybrid tea roses?
Grandiflora roses (a cross between hybrid tea and floribunda roses) are similar to hybrid tea roses but grow more upright and might have clustered blooms. Floribunda roses also share similarities to the hybrid tea rose but possess more disease resistance and are slightly easier to grow.
Can hybrid tea roses grow indoors?
All rose varieties can grow indoors if you simulate ideal outdoor conditions, such as in a greenhouse that receives plenty of sunlight.
Winter care for hybrid tea and shrub roses. (n.d.). K-state.edu. Retrieved December 15, 2022, from https://www.johnson.k-state.edu/lawn-garden/agent-articles/roses/winter-care.html