The type of heat tape used on roofs and gutters to prevent ice buildup is properly called heat cable. The term heat tape refers to another product—an insulated electrical wire applied to water pipes to keep them from freezing and bursting. Heat cable is a similar product, but it is designed for installation on the edge of your home's roof, near the eaves.
In cold climates that experience snow in winter, heat cable can prevent ice buildup along the eaves and inside the gutters and downspouts, which can cause a significant amount of damage. Heat cable is easy to install, but some preparation and prior understanding is important.
Damage Caused by Ice Dams
Each winter, ice dams building up along roof overhangs causes damaging leaks inside many homes. Ice dams occur because snow and ice on the roof melt due to the home's interior heat. When this mass travels down the roof, it freezes again as it reaches the colder exposed overhangs, or eaves. Over time, the frozen melt-off can build up into a dam barrier that causes ice and water to back up under the shingles. Inside the home, the dripping water can damage interior ceiling and wall surfaces. Additionally, the sheer weight of ice dams may damage the roof overhangs and gutters.
How Heat Cable Works
Heat cable is applied by looping it back and form in a zig-zag pattern along the edge of the roof line and gutters. When plugged into an electrical supply, the cable warms up enough to prevent melting snow from freezing when it reaches the overhang area of the roofline. Rather than freezing and causing an ice dam and the ensuing water back up under the shingles, the water simply drips to the ground.
If heat cable is installed incorrectly or if the wrong type of product is used, it could create a fire or electrical shock hazard. This is also true for heat cable that is old and deteriorated. If your home has a heat cable that was installed before you moved in or is more than five years old, it is a good idea to have it checked for proper function. You can also simply replace the old cable with a new cable.
Heat cable is sold in a variety of lengths, ranging from 30 to 200 feet. Heat cables have 3-prong grounded plugs for connecting directly into outdoor electrical outlets. Do not use heat cables with extension cords. For safety reasons, a heat cables must be plugged into a GFCI (ground-fault circuit interrupter) receptacle. If your outdoor outlet is not GFCI-protected, it's easy to replace it with a new GFCI outlet. This should be done before you begin the project.
It is also important to make sure the heat tape you use is UL-listed. This indicates that it has been tested by Underwriter's Laboratories, an independent, non-profit testing laboratory that reviews a wide range of products for safety and quality. Manufacturers that avoid UL listing usually do so because their products are substandard and more likely to fail than products that are listed.
Tools and Materials You Will Need
To install heat cable on your roof, you will need:
- UL-listed heat cable with roof clips
- Extension ladder
- Tape measure
How to Measure for Heat Cable
The first step is to determine how much heat cable you need. You will start by determining the length of heat cable you need:
- Measure the length of your roof line.
- Measure the depth of the eave overhang, from the edge of the roof (not the gutter) straight back to the outside wall.
- If the eave overhang is 12 inches deep, multiply the roof-line measurement (determined in step 1) by 4. If the eave is between 12 and 24 inches deep, multiply the roof-line measurement by 5.3. If the eave depth is between 24 and 36 inches, multiply the roof-line measurement by 6.8.
- Measure the length of each downspout and add this measurement to the previous computation. If a downspout is not at the end of a cable run, double its measurement here, (the cable will need to go all the way down then back up inside the downspout).
- Measure the distance between the edge of the roof (where you will start the heat cable) and the electrical outlet where you will plug in the cable.
- Add up all of the dimensions. This is the length of heat cable you need.
How to Install Heat Cable
Here are the basic steps for installing new heat cable along a roof eave and gutter:
- Route the cable from the electrical outlet to the starting point on the roof. Clip the starting point of the cable to a shingle that is slightly further up the roof than the outside wall. This will ensure that the cable will completely cover the roof overhang.
- Secure the cable to the shingle with one of the provided cable clips.
- Run the cable back down to the gutter at an angle, and form it into a loop. Using one of the provided eave clips, attach it to the bottom edge of the last shingle. The cable should form a loop that extends partway into the gutter.
- Run the cable back up the roof in a zig-zag pattern, creating a triangular shape that is about 15 inches wide. Bend the cable at the top of the triangle and secure it to a shingle with the shingle clip.
- Repeat the same zig-zag pattern as many times as needed to cover the entire perimeter of the roof.
- Once you have reached the end of the roofline, you can begin laying heat cable into the gutter itself. Here, the cable can be laid into the bottom of the gutter or can be suspended with some form of hangers or S-hooks attached to the looping portions of the heat cable.
- When you reach downspouts, feed the cable in a loop down into the downspout, extending the loop as far down as possible—to the outlet, if you can.
- Continue installing the gutter cable back to the cable's starting point, then thread the end of the cable down through the last downspout to the outlet.
- Plug the cable into the GFCI outlet and make sure the heat cable is working properly.
You can leave the cable unplugged until it begins snowing. To save energy, keep the cable unplugged when there is no snow or ice on the roof.