Japanese honeysuckle is an attractive vine, but it can also be an invasive plant that poses problems in the yard. Learn which regions this plant is invasive in and why gardeners living elsewhere may wish to include it in their landscaping.
Taxonomy and Botany of Japanese Honeysuckle
According to plant taxonomy, Japanese honeysuckle is Lonicera japonica. Technically, there is a cultivar named "Hall's" (Halliana) that is botanically distinct from the species plant, but the two are similar enough to be treated as the same plant.
Japanese honeysuckle plants are flowering vines that are deciduous in the North but semi-evergreen or evergreen further south. These plants are climbers. They twine around vertical objects to climb. Some growers choose to train them up garden arbors.
Characteristics of the Vine
Leaves grow in a so-called "opposite" pattern along the stems, one across from the other. Although some gardeners may find its leaves moderately attractive, there is no question as to what Japanese honeysuckle vine is grown for: namely, its blooms. These vines bear white flowers, but some pink coloration often finds its way in, as well. In addition, the older white flowers tend to fade to a yellowish color, even while new ones continue to appear. This means that, at any given time, it is possible for Hall's to have flowers on it of three colors: white, pink, and yellow.
Homeowners may also be tempted to grow it due to its shade tolerance.
Finding vines that grow well in shade can be a challenge, particularly flowering types.
The flowers attract hummingbirds.
Moreover, these are plants that attract butterflies.
Where It Grows, How It Is Used in Landscaping
Japanese honeysuckle is indigenous not only to Japan but also to Korea and China. Due to its invasive nature, it is also found widely in eastern North America, having escaped from people's gardens into the wild and become naturalized. It is likely to be invasive in other regions outside of its homeland with similar climates. Japanese honeysuckle vine can be used as a specimen plant in regions where it is not invasive.
Bush Form, Where It Is Invasive
There are many plants called "honeysuckles," including some that are not vines. For example, there is an invasive honeysuckle bush that is widespread in the Northeastern U.S., named "Morrow's honeysuckle." Other vine-form types also exist.
It is listed as an invasive plant as far up the East Coast of the United States as the southern parts of New England. It is a true menace in parts of the country where the foliage is evergreen and thereby more vigorous. In the South, Japanese honeysuckle grows so aggressively that its weight poses a danger to trees when it climbs into their canopies.
The plant can also harm shrubs and small trees by girdling them.
In northern New England, Hall's Japanese honeysuckle is unlikely to spread aggressively. Sweet autumn clematis is a more troublesome vine there. Check with your local county extension to inquire about Japanese honeysuckle's invasive status in your area.
A Native, Non-Invasive Alternative, Plus Other Types
Growers in North America seeking a non-invasive alternative to Japanese honeysuckle could plant any of the various types of trumpet honeysuckle (Lonicera sempervirens). These North American natives are generally cold-hardy to around planting zone 4. The drawback is that their flowers are not fragrant (or at least not as fragrant as those on their invasive counterpart). Grow them in full sun and in average soil. Depending on type and conditions, these vines can become as tall as 15 feet high, with a maximum spread of about 1/3 of that.
Prune after flowering, if necessary.
Examples of some of the colors and cultivars available are:
- Red: Alabama Crimson
- Yellow: John Clayton
- Orange: Magnifica
Do not confuse trumpet honeysuckle plants with trumpet vines, which are also hummingbird magnets (but highly problematic, being very aggressive spreaders).
Other types of Lonicera vines include:
- Lonicera caprifolium
- Lonicera x heckrottii
- Lonicera x tellmanniana
- Lonicera periclymenum