There are many varieties of trees and shrubs that make up the yew (Taxus) genus. In general, these plants are easy to care for and can tolerate a range of growing conditions. They are highly adaptable for landscaping and make a nice addition to a garden border or in a mass planting. Yews also have long been part of the Christmas tradition in Britain and elsewhere in Europe. Sprigs are often cut from yews to be used like holly in natural Christmas decorations.
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Yew plants are conifers, so they produce cones (along with red berries) instead of flowers. They feature evergreen needles that vary widely in size and shape. Yew bark, needles, and fruit are toxic to humans, dogs, cats, and pets.
|Botanical Name||Taxus spp.|
|Common Names||Yew bush, yew tree, yew shrub|
|Mature Size||4–60 ft. tall, 4–20 ft. wide (depends on variety)|
|Sun Exposure||Full, partial, shade|
|Soil Type||Loamy, moist, well-drained|
|Hardiness Zones||2–10 (depends on variety)|
|Native Areas||Europe, Africa, Asia|
|Toxicity||Toxic to people, toxic to dogs, cats, and pets|
Yews often serve as foundation plantings around a house. They are also common in hedges and topiaries. The varieties used for privacy hedges are typically much taller than they are wide, as you need the extra height for screening. By contrast, yews with a low, spreading habit are more suitable for foundation plants or short decorative hedges.
Excellent soil drainage is key for growing yews. These plants are susceptible to fungal infections often due to soggy soil conditions. But overall the plants are low-maintenance. In general, you can expect to water occasionally, as well as fertilize and prune annually.
Yew bark, needles, and fruit are toxic to humans and animals.
Yew plants can be grown in full sun, partial shade, or even full shade. For healthy and lush branching growth, opt for a spot that gets several hours of sun each day. Too much shade can cause thin and floppy growth.
Yew can tolerate several soil types, as long as the soil has good drainage. Poorly drained soil can result in root rot. Yew tends to thrive in rich loamy soil with a neutral soil pH.
Yew prefers a moderate amount of soil moisture; however, it can tolerate short periods of drought and overwatering as long as the roots are not in standing water. During the first year after planting, water yew regularly to maintain even soil moisture.
Temperature and Humidity
The growing zones for yew plants vary by species. In general, the plants do not tolerate prolonged extreme temperatures, hot or cold. They also prefer to be planted in a site that's sheltered from strong winter winds. Humidity typically isn't a problem for yews, though they can struggle in extremely hot, humid summer weather.
Fertilize your yew in the early spring, beginning a year after planting. One option to enrich the soil is to spread a half-inch layer of mulch and/or compost starting a foot away from the trunk and extending out to the yew's drip line (where rain falls from the outermost branches). Increase to a 1-inch layer if you have poor soil. Another option is to use a granular, high-nitrogen fertilizer raked into the soil starting a foot from the trunk and extending out to the drip line.
There are many types of yew that are popular for landscape use, including:
- Taxus baccata 'Repandens': This variety grows roughly 2 to 4 feet high by 12 to 15 feet wide and is used for foundation plantings or as short hedges.
- Taxus canadensis: Known as Canadian yew, this species has a spreading growth habit and reaches around 4 feet high by 7 feet wide.
- Taxus baccata 'Fastigiata': This plant has a columnar shape at around 15 to 30 feet high by 4 to 8 feet wide and is often used for privacy hedges.
- Taxus cuspidata 'Monloo': This variety grows to around 3 feet high by 8 to 10 feet wide and is used for foundation plantings or short hedges.
- Taxus × media 'Hicksii': This plant also has a columnar shape at around 15 feet high by 20 feet wide and is used for privacy hedges.
Overgrown yew can be rejuvenated with a good pruning, and a plant can be shaped to your preference. It's not essential to prune annually, but it can be helpful to promote lush growth. The best time to prune is during the early spring before new foliage appears. Use hand pruners or branch loppers to cut branches back to where they join other branches. Remove any dead, damaged, or diseased branches as you spot them.