Cotton fabric is made from natural plant fibers and is widely used in clothes, table linens, bedding, and everything from delicate baby onesies to denim blue jeans. Cotton items can be easily washed in the washing machine or by hand though you have keep water temperatures lower to reduce fading in colored items. Cotton clothes are comfortable, breathable, and durable, and though cotton blends are typically ready to wear right out of the wash, 100 percent cotton clothes need a bit more care to keep them looking their best for years. Though clothing needs washing after it's worn every few times, frequent washing and drying at higher temperatures can cause some shrinkage and wrinkling. Read on to learn how to properly clean and care for your cotton garments so they can look and feel fresh longer.
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Equipment / Tools
- Washer or large sink for hand-washing
- Automatic dryer, outdoor clothesline, or indoor drying rack
- Iron or clothes steamer
- Laundry detergent
- Stain remover
- Chlorine or oxygen bleach (optional for stain removal and whitening)
- Laundry starch or sizing (optional)
- Fabric softener or dryer sheets (optional)
|How to Wash and Dry Cotton Clothes|
|Water Temperature||Cold for colored cotton, hot for bed linens and undergarments|
|Drying Cycle Type||Permanent press for clothes, regular cycle for linens|
|Special Treatments||Pre-treat stains|
|Ironing Settings||Cotton setting or 400 F/204 C|
|How Often to Wash||After every two to three wearings|
If your cotton item has stains, pre-treat them with a stain remover before tossing them into the washing machine or washing them by hand. The amount of time for letting the item set will depend on how fresh the stain is.
Fibers in garments each react differently when treated with stain removal products and during laundering. When using a stain removal product for the first time on colored cotton fabrics, especially dark colors and khaki, test it on an inside seam or hem to make sure the garment is colorfast.
Choose Your Detergent and Fabric Softener
Selecting a heavy-duty, high-performing detergent is your best option for removing body soil, odor, and most stains. However, if your clothes are only lightly soiled, any detergent is safe to use on cotton fabrics, even if you are hand-washing the item.
Select the Water Temperature
Unless the cotton garment is worn close to the body, like underwear, socks, or sleeping attire, warm or cool water is the best washing temperature to prevent shrinkage, stretching, and color bleeding. Cooler water temperatures will help prevent bright or darker colors from fading.
Underwear, socks, pajamas, bed linens, bath towels, and kitchen towels should be washed in hot water to remove bacteria, body soil, and bodily fluids. This is especially important if someone in the household is ill, very young, very old, or has a weakened immune system.
Choose the Wash Cycle
Cotton can be washed on just about any cycle. Normal works well for most garments and linens. Opt for the gentle cycle, or wash by hand if the cotton garment is made of lace or embellished. Washer cycles can run from 10 to 45 minutes depending on the cycle chosen and the size of the washer.
Select the Drying Time
Over-drying cotton not only causes some shrinkage but also excessive wrinkling. Select the permanent press setting for cotton clothes or use a lower dryer temperature setting. Sheets, towels, and kitchen linens can be dried at a higher temperature to speed up the process. Drying time depends on the size of the load.
Most cotton fabrics need very little ironing if the clothes are removed from the dryer while slightly damp. A good rule of thumb is to take them out halfway through the dry cycle. Hang clothes to finish drying to prevent wrinkling.
Cotton can be dried on an outdoor clothesline or indoor drying rack. While the ultraviolet rays of the sun will help brighten white cotton clothes, hang colored cotton clothes away from direct sunlight to prevent fading.
As with any type of fabric, treat stains on cotton clothes as quickly as possible following stain removal guidelines to avoid permanent staining. Follow the stain remover instructions and for best results, let it work for at least 10 minutes before washing the garment.
Avoid using undiluted chlorine bleach to treat stains that can weaken fibers and cause holes in cotton fabric. You can safely use a diluted solution on cotton or cellulosic fibers for stain removal and whitening. Always follow the directions on the bleach label carefully. However, even diluted solutions will weaken cotton fibers causing them to rip and prematurely wear out if it is used too often to whiten clothing.
A better option for whitening and brightening white and colored cotton fabrics is to use an oxygen-based bleach which works more slowly than chlorine. Allow the fabrics to soak for at least one hour for the best results. It's always best to read the product labels and follow the manufacturer's recommendations.
Cotton Clothes Care and Repairs
Despite its durability, cotton clothing is prone to rips and tears. If you're comfortable with sewing, repairing rips is a fairly simple task using a needle and cotton thread. You can also take more complex repair work to a tailor.
Some cotton fabrics become extremely wrinkled or develop curled hem edges when washed and will require ironing. Use a medium hot iron and always iron on the wrong side of cotton fabric. For extra protection, use a pressing cloth between the iron and the fabric. Extremely high temperatures when ironing can scorch cellulosic fibers. The scorching or yellowing occurs as the fibers begin to burn.
For a crisp finish, spray the item with laundry starch or sizing while ironing. For stiff laundry-starched shirts, you will need to use liquid starch.
You can also use a clothes steamer or hang cotton clothes in a steamy bathroom to help remove wrinkling. This will give you a crisp finish and remove large wrinkles.
If you don't have time to iron or steam your cotton garment, a good trick is to smooth out the item while you are wearing it. Simply mist the item with a tiny bit of water and use your hands to smooth out the garment's wrinkles.
Storing Cotton Clothes
Cotton is quite a durable fabric and can easily handle daily wear. To keep cotton clothing in optimal condition, fold and store cotton pants in a dresser and hang cotton shirts in a closet to prevent wrinkling.
When storing 100% cotton items long-term, you won't need to worry about moths or moth larvae eating the vegetable-based fibers (moths prefer animal fibers). However, you will need to watch out for carpet beetles and their larvae eating cotton fibers, but you can find natural repellants, such as cedar balls and cedar oil to deter them.
Though airtight plastic containers work short-term for cotton items (and carpet beetles can't get into plastic), the fabric needs to breathe longer term, so choose storage containers and bags made of natural materials and place them in cool, dry, and dark spaces. Avoid storing cotton items in attics and basements where temperatures and humidity fluctuate which could damage your items.
How Often to Wash Cotton Clothes
Cotton clothing should be washed every two to three times it's worn, depending on how soiled the item gets. However, always check the care labels in garments for specific instructions before tossing clothes in the washer.
While cotton is washable, some clothes or accessories may have materials that provide structure and shape―like linings and interfacings in structured jackets and blazers―that are not washable. Other cotton clothing may be fragile which requires the delicate cycle in the wash or hand-washing. If you are new to doing laundry and see a tag that specifies dry clean only, pay attention and trust the tag's instructions.
If you have dark cotton jeans, slacks, or blazers that you want to keep from fading, dry cleaning is always a good option. A professional cleaner will know how to handle the fabric properly. Or, you can use a home dry cleaning kit to freshen dark-colored cotton and protect the color.
Tips for Washing Cotton Clothes
- To prevent clothes from fading, wash garments inside out, don't overstuff your washer, and try to use cold water when possible.
- High temperatures and hot water may cause cotton fibers to shrink. The amount of shrinkage depends on how the fabric was woven at the textile plant, as well as how it was finished (a process that improves the look and feel of the fabric) and sized (a protective substance).
- Try to wash cotton less frequently—especially denim—to maintain its shape, color, and quality.
- Cotton fabrics do not usually suffer from static cling nearly as much as synthetic fabrics. The use of dryer sheets is optional with cotton.
- Fabric softeners will make cotton fibers feel softer and may reduce some wrinkling. However, it is not essential to the care of cotton clothes and the use of fabric softener is optional.
Does 100 percent cotton shrink in the dryer?
Cotton can shrink in the dryer if the temperature of the cycle is set too high. When a cotton garment is woven, the fibers are stretched but heat releases the tension which causes some shrinkage.
Does cold water shrink cotton?
It's largely a myth that cotton shrinks in cold water. To keep your clothing in good shape, always read the label for proper laundering directions. If there's no label, it's safe to use cool or lukewarm water for washing cotton items.
What happens if you wash poplin in the washer?
Poplin is a popular plain weave cotton fabric used in dress shirts and other garments. Poplin is machine-washable and easy to maintain. All it needs is a short tumble-dry cycle and it should be wrinkle-free.