The southern magnolia (Magnolia Grandiflora) is a beautiful, adaptable evergreen tree known for its large, fragrant, white flowers and lustrous dark green leaves that grow on the conical crown. The fall fruit will attract birds to your landscape.
It isn't the largest species, typically growing up to 60 to 80 feet tall, but it has a dense canopy and a shallow root system. The tree needs plenty of space, requires mulch to prevent erosion problems, and it isn't a good choice if you want to grow underneath it. Plant these trees in late spring or early fall, and be aware it can take 10 to 20 years for them to reach their full size.
|Botanical Name||Magnolia grandiflora|
|Common Name||Southern Magnolia, Bull Bay, Big Laurel|
|Plant Type||Perennial, Tree|
|Mature Size||60-80 ft. tall, 20 - 40 ft. wide|
|Sun Exposure||Full sun, Partial Shade|
|Soil Type||Moist, Well-drained|
|Soil pH||Acid, Neutral, Alkaline|
|Bloom Time||Spring, Summer|
|Flower Color||White, Cream|
|Hardiness Zones||6-10, USA|
|Native Area||Southeastern United States|
Magnolia Grandiflora Care
Southern magnolias are attractive and relatively easy-to-grow specimen trees—just be sure to select a site that is sheltered from strong winds and offers them ample room to grow. They are often planted in rows to act as a privacy screen or to define property lines. Because of their messy leaf drop in the spring and fall, they aren't always a good choice for a lawn. Planting in an ornamental bed means you can use the robust leaf debris can as a natural mulching material.
You can plant container-grown trees at any time (although avoid planting in the heat of summer), and those bought balled and burlapped are usually transplanted sometime between August and October. Transplant shock is common with this species, so don't worry if the tree sheds many leaves during its first growing season.
Southern Magnolias do best in partial shade, particularly if soil conditions aren't all that moist. Once established, they can do well in a full sun position in moist, rich soils. Ideally, your tree should receive at least four hours of unfiltered sunlight a day. In nature, southern magnolia is an understory tree, so it tolerates shade, although it needs sun to bloom well.
Southern magnolias do best in moist, well-drained, loamy, acidic, and fertile soils. However, they can tolerate a wide range of conditions and pH levels. Overly dry or prolonged waterlogged conditions and high alkalinity aren't appreciated.
Providing your southern magnolia has ample room for root expansion and the soil is not a poor, dry type, it will demonstrate drought tolerance.
When first planted, the tree will need weekly watering to become established. Once established, water frequency will depend on soil drainage and regional rainfall. Too much or too little water can cause the tree's leaves to turn yellow. Mulching around the planting area is beneficial—just avoid allowing the mulch to touch the tree's trunk.
Temperature and Humidity
Southern magnolias prefer temperate and humid semitropical climes. Extremes of temperatures are not good, and even a light frost easily damages seedlings.
Fertilizing three times a year—in spring, summer, and fall—is beneficial once your southern magnolia starts to produce new growth. By the fourth or fifth year, unless your tree is in particularly infertile soil, its sprawling roots should be able to find sufficient nutrients themselves.
Types of Magnolia Grandiflora
The southern magnolias popularity means there are many cultivars, with some that flower early and others with a smaller growth habit or thicker canopy. Some popular examples include:
- Magnolia grandiflora 'Edith Bougue': One of the most cold-hardy cultivars, it has a pyramidal form that grows tighter and denser as it ages, and it typically reaches up to 30 feet tall.
- Magnolia grandiflora 'Hasse': With its tight, columnar form, this cultivar works well for use in smaller spaces or in rows for screening. It typically reaches up to 40 feet tall.
- Magnolia grandiflora 'Little Gem': This award winner is an excellent option if you are looking for a dwarf magnolia. One of the smallest cultivars, it is typically grown as a shrub and doesn't often grow higher than 25 feet. Although the leaves and flowers are small, they are still attractive, and the tree blooms abundantly from a young age.
If you want to tidy up your southern magnolia, encourage a tight, compact form, or give it a more tree-like appearance, you can prune it after the blooming season is over. Do this before winter—dormant magnolia branches don't heal easily. Avoid pruning the lower limbs to allow a more open and natural form and to prevent disease-inducing stress and suckers from forming.
Propagating Magnolia Grandiflora
It is possible, but sometimes tricky, to propagate southern magnolia from cuttings. If you plan to try this, there is some general guidance to be aware of:
- Select a six-inch semi-hardwood cutting with at least a few leaves from young stock during the summer months. make a straight cut above a node. Remove any lower leaves.
- Apply a rooting hormone to improve success rates
- Place in a moist, well-drained rooting medium that is at least 4 inches deep
- When transplanting the cutting, take care not to damage the fleshy and delicate roots
How to Grow Magnolia Grandiflora From Seed
If you want to grow a southern magnolia from seed, try these tips:
- Collect ripe cones from an existing tree. Dry until the fleshy fruits come away freely. Soak the seeds in warm water for 1-2 days to remove the seed coating. Once the coating has softened, drain off the water.
- Clean and dry the seeds with tissue. Either sow the seeds fresh and overwinter in a cold frame, or mix with moist peat, vermiculite, or sand, place in a plastic bag, and refrigerator for two months before sowing.
- Germination can take up to 18 months.
- When the seedlings are large enough to handle, move them into a light shade position. Keeping them in a cold frame or greenhouse for their first full winter is beneficial.
- Plant out when the seedlings are at least 6 inches tall, mulch well, and protect for the first couple of winters.
Common Problems With Magnolia Grandiflora
Southern magnolia are known for being relatively pest and disease-free. However, if conditions are not right, problems are possible.
Certain fungi and bacterium can cause leaf spots and blights. These include Septoria spp, Cladosporium spp, and Coniothyrium spp. Although it can look unsightly, they don't often cause any major damage. Promptly clearing away infected fallen leaves can help to control the problem.
Canker diseases and Verticillium wilt can kill off branches. Manage this by pruning out the problematic branches and ensuring the tree is healthy, well-nourished, and watered.
How fast does Magnolia Grandiflora grow?
Depending on conditions, this species has a slow to medium growth rate. Typical annual growth is from around 12 to 24 inches.
Are southern magnolias easy to grow?
Part of the popularity of this species is that they are adaptable to a wide range of conditions. Southern magnolias are relatively low maintenance, providing they are not growing in a region with extremes in temperatures or prolonged droughts.
Are southern magnolias a good choice for small yards?
Magnolias have a shallow but spreading root system and higher than average leaf drop. This makes them a poor choice for yards with limited space. If you are keen to grow this species in a small garden, select a narrow, small cultivar like 'Little Gem'.