Pruning an apple tree, much like pruning a peach tree, improves the tree's vigor and fruit production. It seems complicated, and many gardeners are apprehensive about tackling the task. Take heart—it is almost impossible to kill a mature, overgrown apple tree by pruning it, and most of the complicated pruning takes place in the first three years of an apple tree's life. After then, the hard part is over.
And the rewards of preforming a comprehensive pruning job on an overgrown apple tree will quickly be rewarded with improved output of fruit and a healthier tree.
When to Prune an Apple Tree
Mature apple trees will tell you they are in need of rigorous pruning when the fruit output begins to diminish. Most fruit trees grown in home gardens are spurring types. A spur is a short (3- to 5-inch) branch where the apple tree flowers and sets fruit. These spurs diminish when the tree begins to produce suckers and when there is too much unproductive wood on the tree. By removing the suckers and bad wood through heavy pruning, the tree is stimulated to produce more fruiting spurs. Further, hard pruning opens up the branches so that sunlight and air can reach all the ripening fruit.
Commercial growers perform some form of pruning on an apple tree almost every year, but for homeowners, a mature tree should be fine if it is hard-pruned every three years or so.
Pruning is best done in late winter while the tree is dormant, or in the early spring before new growth has begun. If possible, avoid pruning in the summer and fall, as this stimulates new, sensitive growth that may be vulnerable to insect attack and winter damage.
|Working Time||2 to 3 hours|
|Material Cost||$0 to $75 (if tool purchase required)|
What You'll Need
- Pruning shears
- Lopping shears or saw for larger branches
- Heavy-duty gloves
- Protective gear (safety glasses, hardhat)
- Debris barrel or sacks
Remove Bad Branches
Start pruning by removing any dead, damaged, or diseased branches. The dead wood will be dark or brittle, often with the bark falling away. Diseased wood is usually a different color than the other branches. An open wound on a branch is an invitation to insects and further disease. You can, and should, prune dead and injured wood at any time of the year.
Plants are pruned to encourage more growth, but not all growth is welcome. Suckers (branches growing from the base of the tree), whorls (branches that grow from and encircle another branch), and water sprouts (thin branches that usually grow straight upright) are never going to bear fruit—they just sap energy from the plant. Removing them early in the pruning process will also help you better see the structure of the tree, making it easier to see where further cuts are necessary.
Remove Low Branches
Get rid of any branches within about 4 feet of the ground. They'll probably be too shaded to produce any apples, and they'll just invite animals to nibble.
Remove Problem Branches
Prune out any downward-facing branches. They, too, will be shaded and unproductive. Next, focus on removing any branches that cross or rub against larger branches. As these grow, they will get thicker and heavier. Get rid of them now before they do damage to the "scaffold" branches that form the main shape of the tree.
Shorten or Remove Competing Branches
Step back, and view the tree again. It should have one main leader or central trunk. The leader may be a bit curved because the tree wasn't staked as it grew, or it could have been bent by the wind. There is nothing wrong with this, but tmajor side branches extending from the leader will have to go. If they are left, they will become competing branches that will distort the shape and openness of the tree. Prune them back.
When pruning out an entire branch, cutting back to the collar of the branch, slightly away from the trunk, is an option. Just follow the ring of the collar.
However, when only partially pruning the branch, try and prune to an outward facing bud, which is one that is directed away from the neighboring branch. Cutting just above an outward facing bud will encourage it to sprout a new branch that will grow out and away from the other existing branch. If a cut were made above an inward facing bud, it would encourage a new branch that would cross and/or shade the existing inner branch, which would eventually have to be removed.
Clear Out the Clutter
Now, focus on thinning interior branches, so that sunlight can reach all the fruits, and each branch will sit at a nice, strong angle of greater than 45 degrees from the leader. Be as ruthless as possible without removing more than about one-third of the branches. Remove all spindly growth. Remember, all of this pruning is going to result in new growth, so the more eliminated now will be less you need to deal with later.
Inspect the Tree
Finally, make sure that upper branches are shorter than the lower branches. The final result should look like a pyramid with well spaced horizontal branches. There is truth to the old adage tells us a bird should be able to fly through the apple tree without its wings touching a branch.
It may look extreme when it's finished, but the tree will bear healthier fruit and be easier to harvest as a result of these efforts.