An imbalanced or incomplete diet is a common problem with pet birds and is a relatively common cause of illness. There is a lack of scientific study on avian nutrition, especially as it relates to the different species. While our avian nutrition is still in early stages, most experts agree that a good diet for parrots begins with a formulated diet with a variety of other foods added as supplements.
Lories and Lorikeet have special needs and are discussed later in this article.
For most pet birds, especially parrots and parakeets, a diet based primarily on seeds is deficient in many nutrients, including vitamin A and calcium, and is too high in fat. This is not to say that seed does not have a place in avian diets, but many birds come to prefer them to the exclusion of other healthy choices and can be fussy when it comes to trying a varied diet. Some birds will even pick out a couple of favorites from a seed mix, which further reduces the nutritional balance in the diet. When it comes to parrot nutrition, consider seeds to be somewhat like junk food: birds love them, but they are not the healthiest choice. For most species of parrot, seeds should only make up about 10 percent of the diet. Some species, like budgies and cockatiels, are naturally seed eaters and can tolerate a higher percentage of seed in the diet, but even for these birds, seeds should only make up about 25 percent of the diet.
A number of years ago, realizing that many parrots were suffering from nutritional deficiencies, companies began producing pelleted diets for pet birds. These are made from a variety of foods including grains, seeds, vegetables, fruits, fortified with vitamins and minerals, and are baked into pellet or variety of other extruded shapes.
These provide a balanced nutritious diet and prevent birds from picking out their favorite food items and leaving the rest. However, many birds, especially those started on a seed based diet, do not readily take to eating a formulated diet. As well, formulated diets, though well balanced, do not provide the variety and stimulation that many pet birds crave in their diets (after all, eating the same thing day after would be boring for anyone). Therefore, pellets can be considered the "base" of the bird's diet, comprising 50-60 percent of what the bird eats.
Some good brands of formulated diets include Harrison's, Zupreem, Kaytee, Pretty Bird, and Roudybush. As these diets grow in acceptance and popularity, manufacturer's are producing lines formulated for particular species and also for health management (e.g. lower calorie diets for weight management). As mentioned earlier, these diets come in a variety of shapes from larger chunks down to crumbles, and you may need to experiment to find the type your bird prefers. Some birds, especially those used to a seed based diet, may be difficult to switch to a formulated diet - advice on switching is available in "Switching Pet Birds from Seeds to Pellets".
If you are in doubt over which diet would be best for your bird, consult your bird's veterinarian for advice.
As we come to a better understanding of the nutritional needs of birds, the recommended diet for pet parrots includes a variety of nutritious freshly prepared foods in addition to a formulated diets (pellets) and a small percentage of seeds. Remember that most freshly prepared foods will spoil readily, and should be removed from the cage after a couple of hours. If your bird is not readily accepting new foods, try offering them early in the morning or in the evening, times when birds naturally forage for food in the wild. More tips on introducing new foods are found in "Introducing New Foods to Picky Eaters."
Fresh vegetables are a great addition to your bird's diet. Not all vegetables are equally nutritious though; vegetables like celery and lettuce are high in fiber and water but are otherwise not all that nutritious.
Dark yellow and leafy green vegetables are usually excellent choices. You can offer vegetables in a variety of forms to entice the bird to try them - fresh whole or chopped, or cooked and fed slightly warm. Try hanging vegetables from the side of the cage in a clip, or offering them in chunks that larger birds can pick up with their feet to gnaw on. You may need to be creative to get them to try things and the aim is to get your bird to eat as many different kinds of vegetables as possible. Try a variety of vegetables such as:
- Carrots (root and tops)
- Sweet potatoes
- Leafy greens such as collards, kale, turnip greens, mustard greens, Swiss chard, beet greens and dandelion greens
- Green beans
- Sweet red, yellow and green peppers
- Broccoli (head and leaves)
- Sugar snap or snow peas
- Romaine or green/red leaf lettuce (small amounts)
- Corn (kernels, or on the cob for larger birds)
Remember no avocado!
Again, you want to feed a wide variety, not just a favorite few. Many birds love fruit and will overdo it so limit fruits to a fairly small portion of the overall diet. As with vegetable, many of the more deeply colored fruits contain more nutrition, and it is good to try feeding a variety of more tropical type fruits parrots might be exposed to in their native habitats. However, make sure they do not eat pits or apple seeds as these can be toxic. Try fruits such as:
- Cantaloupe (without the rind), other melons
Birds can also be fed a variety of nutritious grains, such as cooked brown rice, quinoa, oats, wheat, barley, and pasta. Whole wheat bread and unsweetened whole wheat cereals can also be offered. Cooked legumes such as beans, lentils, and peas are an excellent addition to their diets. Birds can also be offered small amounts of lean well-cooked meat and poultry and cooked eggs.
Sprouted seeds are an excellent source of nutrition for pet birds and an excellent way to supplement with greens.
Freshly sprouted seeds are a nutritional gold mine, as the seed mobilizes its nutritional content into a highly digestible and bioavailable form as it starts to grow. Sprouted seeds are rich in vitamins and minerals as well as enzymes and antioxidants, and some consider them to be natures most perfect food. In any case, they are an excellent way to provide a nutritional boost and most birds love them. Information on sprouting seeds can be found in "Sprouting for Healthier Birds."
Vitamin and Mineral Supplements
It is usually a good idea to offer a cuttlebone (for extra calcium) but otherwise, extra vitamin and mineral supplements are not needed if you are feeding a well-balanced diet based on formulated foods supplemented with a variety of nutrition home prepared foods. Additional supplements should only be given on the advice of your veterinarian.
Chocolate, avocado, and rhubarb should not be fed. Of course, do not give any beverages containing caffeine or alcohol. Avoid processed meats or other foods high in nitrates, nitrites, sulfites, or monosodium glutamate (MSG). Onions, sprouted lima, fava and navy beans, fruit pits and apple seeds should also be avoided.
Stay away from junk foods and any foods high in fat, salt, or sugar. Birds are also lactose intolerant so milk products should be limited to small amounts of hard cheese and yogurt.
Some experts and owners are concerned about feeding peanuts in the shell because they can be contaminated with Aspergillus fungus, which can cause respiratory illness as well as producing a toxin (aflatoxin, a potent carcinogen). If you feed raw peanuts, get good quality human grade peanuts and do not feed if there is any sign of mold. Shelled, blanched (unsalted, of course) peanut are fine. All food should be inspected and discarded if there are any signs of mold.
These parrots are the striking exception to the general advice about feeding parrots. In the wild, they feed mainly on nectar, and their diet in captivity must mimic a nectar based diet. There are a variety of special formulas available for these birds; some are made into a nectar for feeding and some can also be fed as a dry powder. Nectar can spoil quickly and must be replaced often (e.g. every 4 hours or so in hot weather). The formulated diets for lories and lorikeets can be supplemented with some fresh fruits and vegetables, including pomegranates, papaya, grapes, cantaloupe, mango, pineapple, figs, apples, kiwi, pears, sweet potatoes, carrots, broccoli, squash, bell pepper, jalapeno peppers, dark leafy greens such as kale, and peas. Fresh vegetables and fruits can be chopped finely or even pureed if your lory prefers. Sprouted seeds are also an excellent food for lories and lorikeets. Some owners also feed edible flowers such as pansies, nasturtiums, hibiscus, marigolds, and dandelions.