When Do You Need a Permit for Your Remodeling Project?

A building permit with blueprint and hard hat
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Determining if you need a permit for your home remodeling project can be difficult because permitting departments often frustrate homeowners' attempts to sort out rules. Departments traditionally have prioritized commercial interests over those of homeowners doing their own work. Often it is a bias borne from necessity: contractors, builders, and the trades represent an overwhelmingly large majority of applicants.

While all cities and counties are different, certain themes do emerge to clarify permitting requirements. These themes, expanded below, can be generalized as public and personal safety, plumbing, electrical, and natural gas. Projects touching on those areas will require permits. With changing safety codes and a need for greater revenue, cities and counties shift more projects to the "Permit Required" list.

Permit Required

Most localities will require a permit for the following activities.

Topic Project
Walls Demolishing a load-bearing wall
Roof Changing house's roofline
Layout Whenever you expand the house in any way or alter the house's envelope, you will need a permit.
Electrical Installing any new electrical wiring or adding circuits
Fences installing a fence over a certain height, such as 6 feet, triggers a permit. Most municipalities will consider an add-on such as shrubbery to be part of the fence.
Demolition Parking your roll-off dumpster on a public street will require a permit. This is one of the rare permitting instances where your own property is not involved.
Decks Building decks over a certain height, such as 30 inches above grade.
Sewer Doing anything with a sewer line typically requires a permit. This permit action concerns not just your personal safety, but the health of those serviced by the main sewer line down from your house.
Addition Building an addition will always require a permit.
Driveway or Garage Building a garage or even a carport
Windows and Doors Exterior doors, windows, and skylights that require a new opening
Fireplace and Chimney Fireplaces, wood-burning stoves, and inserts nearly always require a permit because of the potential for fires. Chimney cleaning will be an exception, though.
Garages Garage conversions
HVAC Installing a new furnace or air conditioner
Water Heaters Installation of a new water heater
Plumbing New hose bibs for the outside of your house
Roofing Re-roofing involving structural elements, including but not limited to sheathing, skylights, change of roof pitch and change of roof material where the total weight exceeds 10 pounds per square foot.

Permit Might Be Required

Topic Project
Plumbing Moving a sink, as this entails running new plumbing supply and drain lines
Walls Demolishing a non-load-bearing wall usually requires a permit. Even though this type of work does not structurally compromise your home, some permitting agencies want to be overly cautious and make certain that do-it-yourself homeowners do not undertake dangerous repairs.
Doors and Windows Replacing doors or windows on a one-for-one basis
Landscaping Cutting down a tree on your property
Landscaping Retaining walls over 4 feet tall tend to require permits, as retaining walls have a tendency to topple above this height.

Permit Often Not Required

As time goes by, more non-permitted actions become permit-required. In some municipalities, the following actions may still steer clear of permit requirements.

Topic Project
Roof Laying in a new roof of similar materials.
Demolition Parking your roll-off dumpster on your own property. However, if you happen to live in an association-controlled neighborhood, make sure you do not run afoul of your own housing association's rules.
Flooring Putting in any kind of hard flooring (wood, laminate, vinyl, etc.) or carpeting
Plumbing Replacing an existing sink
Painting Interior or exterior painting
Kitchen Replacing your countertops
Siding Freshening up the exterior with new siding, as long as it is non-structural
Electrical Minor electrical work, such as replacing a light fixture or an electrical outlet, often does not require a permit. Replacing a circuit breaker in-kind will not require a permit either.
Decks Decks below a certain height (such as 30 inches) are not considered to be a safety hazard and therefore do not require permits.
Exteriors One-story detached buildings like workshops and storage sheds as long as they do not receive electrical or plumbing services
Landscaping Building tree houses under a certain size and height may not require a permit. However, habitable or live-in treehouses will need a permit.
Fences Fences below a certain height, such as 6 feet
Property Boundaries Permitting departments are not concerned with matters involving your boundary with your neighbor. Disputes are civil matters for the courts.
Landscaping Retaining walls below 4 feet tall
Decks Decking surface replacement, as long as you are not replacing structural materials
Bathrooms and Kitchens Bathroom and kitchen fixture replacements without plumbing line modifications such as sinks and toilets
Appliances Appliance replacement in the same location as long as you are not modifying gas, plumbing lines, or electrical circuits such as dishwashers, ranges, ovens, gas logs, washers, and dryers.
Illustration describing when you may need a building permit
 Illustration: Alex Dos Diaz. © The Spruce, 2019

For Definitive Answers

A phone call to your local permitting office is the best way to determine if you need a permit. Many permit officers are happy to discuss permitting issues with anonymous callers as a way to ward off future code violations. Even then, the only definitive way to know if a permit is required is often to apply for a permit.