Prevention and Control of Plantains

Whether Broadleaf or Buckhorn, Plantains are an Aggressive Weed

Broadleaf Plantain

Plantain is an aggressive weed that appears mostly in lawns and ornamental beds and gardens. It can be found in almost any neglected, or natural, location, especially in wet areas with little sun. 

Plantains are perennial weeds. They have a shallow, thick taproot that keeps them alive over the winter. They sprout in mid spring, then send up a flower stalk in early to mid summer. This blooms and its seeds are dispersed by the wind, thus spreading this plant quickly throughout your garden.

Also known as 

Plantains have medium-green, oval shaped leaves that form flat rosettes. The foliage can be broad or narrow. Flower spikes emerge in late spring with dozens of tiny flower buds along their lengths. Sometimes it can be difficult to tell when plantain is actually in bloom since the flowers are almost indistinguishable from the buds.

There are two types of plantain: broadleaf plantain (Plantago major) and narrow-leaf, or buckhorn plant (P. lanceolata). 

Broadleaf Plantain

Broadleaf plantain, or Plantago major, is known as common plantain and has smooth, oval leaves that are two to six inches in length. Its flower stalk is topped with a circular-shaped flower that could be as large as two to three inches around. Its taproot can be as long as 18 inches.

Buckhorn Plantain

Buckhorn plantain, or Plantago lanceolata, is also considered a broadleaf weed, in spite of its name. It has leaves that range from three to 10 inches long with a lance-like shape.

The flower stalk can grow quite tall — up to 2 1/2 feet. Its taproot is not as hearty and long as the broadleaf variety, and might even branch.

Eradicating Plantains

Plantains are a stubborn weed that can be a major problem for gardeners. They form a dense clump of individual plants. If they appear in your lawn or garden and you don't take steps to remove them, they will crowd out desirable plants.

Further, lawnmowers and other equipment can harbor seeds or broken taproots, which can then easily spread the plant further.

For maximum control, remove any plantains before they set seed. The only sure way to get rid of plantains is to dig them up, ensuring that you get the entire root. Pieces of the root can regenerate, and the plantains can return. Water the area well a day in advance of when you plan to weed, then use a flat screwdriver or dandelion digger to dig the plantain out. Use the tool to loosen the soil around the taproot. Once the root seems free, pull the entire plant out. Mow or pick off any flower stalks, even if you can't get around to weeding. This will prevent the plantain from spreading its seed all over your garden.

Preventing Plantains

Plantains thrive in compacted soil, sparse or too closely mowed lawns, moist shade, and areas that get inconsistent irrigation. To prevent them from setting up shop in your garden and lawn, a few simple steps are required. If your soil is compacted, aerate your lawn in the fall. Top dress everything with compost. Mow your lawn high, and seed any sparse areas. In general, a healthy, full lawn will make it almost impossible for plantains to get established.

Uses for Plantains

On the bright side, if you do have plantains, take advantage of their antiseptic properties next time you get a mosquito bite. Pick a leaf, crush it, and rub it on your mosquito bites. It will quickly relieve the itching and redness.