Many plants that are poisonous to dogs are very common in backyards. These toxic time-bombs range from being only mildly toxic (for example, causing vomiting) to being responsible for serious canine health problems. If you wish to err on the safe side, thoroughly research all the vegetation and berries that your dog has access to.
In the case of some plants that pose a danger, only a particular part of the plant in question will be toxic (for example, the seed, leaves, or sap).
The following list of plants poisonous to dogs is not a complete, exhaustive list. Rather, it should be a springboard for further research. Many (but not necessarily all) of the examples on this list are also toxic to cats and humans, as well.
This list of plants poisonous to dogs has been organized according to plant type and potential for toxicity.
Cold-Hardy, Perennial Flowers
The toxic nature of some of the plants poisonous to dogs will probably come as no surprise to some of you. The danger posed by foxglove, for example, is fairly common knowledge. A few plants, such as dogbane, even announce their toxicity in their very names. If only it was always that easy to determine which plants can make your dog sick. The only other entry on this list that gives itself away so easily is monkshood, which is also known as "wolfsbane."
- Foxglove (Digitalis purpurea)
- Mums (Chrysanthemum morifolium)
- Lenten rose (Helleborus orientalis)
- Lily-of-the-valley (Convallaria majalis)
- Bleeding hearts (Dicentra spectabilis)
- Monkshood (Aconitum)
- Yarrow (Achillea millefolium)
Many vines, including those listed below, have the potential to be invasive plants. But vines are also incredibly versatile, serving many a landscaping need. If you own a canine friend who has the run of the yard, make sure you choose vines that, unlike the following examples, are not poisonous to dogs:
- English ivy (Hedera helix)
- Morning glory (Ipomoea tricolor)
- Oriental bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus)
- Boston ivy (Parthenocissus tricuspidata)
Annuals are sold in droves at garden centers and valued for the instant, long-lasting color they can inject into your landscaping. But select your plants carefully if you have a dog that goes outdoors and tends to eat your flowers. The following annuals are poisonous.
In the North, where lantana is treated as an annual, it is popular in hanging baskets and other container gardens, in which its lively flowers grace many a porch or patio space. Not only is lantana an invasive shrub in warmer areas (where it is not annual), however, but it is also toxic. Grow the plant up high in a hanging basket thus serves two purposes: keeping the plant contained so it does not spread and keeping the plant at a height where the dog cannot reach it.
Shrubs, along with trees and hardscape, help supply a "backbone" for the yard. Any good list of shrubs will offer a glimpse into some of the possibilities these workhorses of the landscape provide. But several shrubs are plants poisonous to dogs:
- Rose of Sharon (Hibiscus syriacus)
- Yew bushes (Taxus)
- Mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia)
- Burning bush (Euonymus alata)
- Azalea genus (Azaleas and rhododendrons)
- Boxwood (Buxus)
- Privet (Ligustrum)
- Andromeda (Pieris japonica)
"An apple a day keeps the doctor away"? Our faith in this maxim is not shaken by the well-known fact that apple seeds contain cyanide. Nor should it be. But according to the ASPCA, even the leaves of apple trees (Malus) are toxic, and The Merck Veterinary Manual confirms this claim. Since the hawthorns are related to apples, it should come as no surprise that Washington hawthorn trees (Crataegus phaenopyrum) are poisonous to canines. More examples:
- Oleander (Nerium oleander)
- American holly (Ilex opaca)
- Yellow bird of paradise (Caesalpinia gilliesii)
- Golden chain (Laburnum × watereri)
- Oak trees (Quercus; leaves and acorns poisonous to dogs)
You may have heard that squirrels (a major pest for many other spring-flowering bulb plants) will not eat daffodils. But do you know why? The fact is, daffodils (Narcissus) are toxic. Other bulbs toxic to dogs include:
Some landscaping stalwarts (including some tropical plants) are grown for their flowers, but others are grown for their vegetation. We sometimes refer to them as foliage plants. Some of the plant specimens poisonous to dogs that follow are also known for having large leaves, such as castor beans and the aptly-named "elephant ears." By contrast, bird of paradise and angel's trumpet are grown for their sensational blossoms. Meanwhile, aloe vera may be toxic for your puppy, but it is found in many skin-care products for humans. As for snake lily, this unusual specimen is in a class all by itself:
- Castor bean (Ricinus communis)
- Elephant ears (Colocasia)
- Aloe vera
- Bird of paradise (Strelitzia reginae)
- Angel's trumpet (Brugmansia)
- Snake lily (Amorphophallus konjac)
Weeds and Other Wild Plants
As if weeds did not already give us fits while trying to control them, there are also some weeds that are poisonous to dogs. Yellow dock has an upside: namely, its leaves can be crushed to create a salve for stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) burns. Meanwhile, Mayapple, baneberry, bloodroot, and jack-in-the-pulpit have a place in wildflower gardens, and mistletoe is, of course, a classic for Christmas decorating, as is another poisonous plant, the poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima):
- Yellow dock (Rumex crispus)
- Bittersweet nightshade (Solanum dulcamara)
- Creeping Charlie (Glechoma hederacea)
- Mayapple (Podophyllum peltatum)
- Baneberry (Actaea)
- Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis)
- Jack-in-the-pulpit (Arisaema triphyllum)
- Mistletoe (Viscum album)
If you know you have plants poisonous to dogs growing in your yard, it is a good idea to keep your dog from accessing them, perhaps via some fencing. But seedlings (especially of weeds) can sprout up very quickly, so also be sure to monitor the grounds within the fencing to ensure that it remains free of toxic intruders. If your dog becomes ill and you suspect that it has eaten one of these poisonous plants, contact your veterinarian immediately if you wish to be on the safe side.