There is a tradition at Rosh Hashanah to eat symbolic foods (simanim) meant to help ensure a good new year. This list blends both Ashkenazic (Eastern European) and Sephardic (Mediterranean) traditions and includes recipe suggestions for integrating symbolic foods throughout your yom tov (holiday) menus. Another option is to incorporate lots of simanim into a single dish -- think salads, grain pilafs, or sweet stews called tzimmes like this roasted simanim tzimmes with tahini honey drizzle.
01 of 10
How better to wish for a Shana Tova U'Metukah -- a good and sweet new year -- than to eat one of nature's sweetest foods? For Ashkenazim in particular, apples are the iconic accompaniment to honey. (That's probably because in cool European climes, long before the globalization of the food supply, they were a readily available fall fruit.)
100% pure honey, without added flavors or additives, is kosher even if the package does not have a hechsher. While added flavorings present a kashrut... (kosher) issue, the naturally occurring flavor and color variations imparted by individual flower nectars are totally fine. In honor of the holiday, seek out a special varietal honey. Better yet, offer a tasting flight of several intriguing kinds of honey.
02 of 10
The rimon, or pomegranate, is special for many reasons. It is one of the Seven Species of Israel and has traditionally been used as a "new fruit" for the Shehechiyanu blessing (celebrating new and unusual experiences) on Rosh Hashanah. But there's another link between pomegranates and the Jewish New Year -- just as the fruits are full of seeds, we hope we'll be similarly full of merits in the coming year.
This year serve baked pomegranate chicken with pomegranate granita at your... Rosh Hashanah dinner.
03 of 10
Gezer, the Hebrew word for carrot, sounds very much like g'zar, the Hebrew word for decree. Eating them on Rosh Hashanah is meant to express our desire that G-d will nullify any negative decrees against us. Interestingly, the Yiddish words for "carrots" and "more" -- mern and mer, respectively -- are strikingly similar. So among Yiddish speakers, carrots symbolize the desire for increased blessings in the new year.
Bring carrots to your holiday table with roasted carrot,... apple, and celery soup (pareve or dairy), carrot kugel (parve), a carrot salad with parsley. Please your vegetarian guests with a Moroccan vegetarian carrot and chickpea tagine. And finish the meal with a delicious carrot cake with cream cheese frosting (pareve).
04 of 10
Beets or Spinach
The Hebrew word for beets, selek, is similar to the word for "remove." They're eaten to express the hope that our enemies will depart. In Aramaic, the language of the Gemara, silka referred to a leafy green vegetable akin to spinach. Some maintain that this leafy green is the original symbolic food for Rosh Hashanah and that beets are a more recent development. Of course, you could always hedge your bets with a spinach and beet salad.Continue to 5 of 10 below.
05 of 10
Black-Eyed Peas, Green Beans or Fenugreek
Rubia, which may refer to several different types of small beans, or even fenugreek, is reminiscent of the word yirbu, "to increase." These foods symbolize the hope for a fruitful year filled with merit.
06 of 10
Heads: Fish, Sheep, Cabbage or Garlic
Including some sort of head on the menu is representative of our hope that we be likened to a head, and not a tail. In other words, we should move forward and make progress in the coming year, rather than follow or linger in the rear. Vegetarians may opt for a head of cabbage or garlic in place of the traditional fish or sheep's head.
A simple--and delicious--way to incorporate a head at your table is with roasted garlic (pareve) and rainbow slaw (pareve) including cabbage. If you are ok with... a fish head, try porgy baked in salt (pareve), or any other baked whole fish you prefer. For those who are of the more adventurous kind, a steamed sheep's head (meat) will do the trick.
07 of 10
The ancient belief that fish don't sleep has been discredited, but the notion that fish are ever vigilant and swim constantly is linked to this symbol and reflects the desire to be constantly aware of G-d and of opportunities to do good.
There are so many fish recipes to choose from, but here are a few ideas to get you started. How about lemon-garlic baked salmon, lemon herb baked halibut (parve) or a garlic-flavored baked sea bass? For something a bit exotic, try Indian-spiced salmon. Or go... traditional with a classic gefilte fish.
08 of 10
Leeks, Chard or Spinach
The word for leek is related to the word kareyt, meaning to cut. This symbol is linked to the prayer that those who wish to hurt us will instead be cut off.
Leek latkes, butternut squash and leek lasagna (pareve version) and sweet potato, spinach and caramelized onion tart with balsamic reduction are all delicious ways to add this symbol to the Rosh Hashanah menu.Continue to 9 of 10 below.
09 of 10
The Hebrew word for gourd is related to the Hebrew homonyms pronounced k'ra. One word means "to rip," the other "to announce." We ask that G-d rip up any evil decree against us and that our merits be announced before Him.
Fall is the perfect time to serve gourds as they are in peak season. Start the meal with Moroccan pumpkin and chickpea soup. Finish with either Kolokythopita: Greek pumpkin pie with phyllo dough.
10 of 10
The Hebrew word for dates, t'marim, evokes the word tam, "to end," and the hope that our enemies will be finished. On a more positive note, dates, like pomegranates, are one of the Seven Species of Israel. And while archaeological evidence now shows that beekeeping was practiced in ancient Israel, it is generally agreed that when Israel is called "a land flowing with milk and honey," the Torah is referring to date honey.