Royal Poinciana Plant Profile

Brazil, Southeast, SP, Itu, Flamboyant Red Flowering Tree (Delonix regia) Farm in St. Peter
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The royal poinciana (Delonix regia) is a fast-growing evergreen tree that features an abundance of scarlet blossoms. It is a favorite in many tropical and subtropical locations.

The foliage on this species is bipinnately compound, meaning that each leaf consists of up to 25 pairs of leaflets, and each of those leaflets is further divided into up to 25 more pairs of leaflets.

This tree is renowned worldwide for its clusters of exquisite red flowers that blanket the tree and show up in the summer months during warm weather. Each of the five petals is reddish-orange or scarlet color. One petal is bigger than the others and has yellow and white markings. The fruit is a seed pod that can be over a foot long.

Botanical Name Delonix regia
Common Name Royal poinciana, peacock flower, gold mohair, royal flame tree, Arbol de Fuego, Gulmohar, flame tree
Plant Type Flowering tree
Mature Size 20 to 40 feet
Sun Exposure Full sun
Soil Type Well-drained clay, loamy, sandy or gravelly
Soil pH 4.9 to 10.6
Bloom Time Summer
Flower Color Red, orange
Hardiness Zones 10 to 12
Native Area Madagascar

How to Grow Royal Poinciana

Plant a royal poinciana tree in a location where it has enough space to grow. Not only can this variety of tree reach up to 40 feet, but it can also spread to between 40 and 60 feet wide. While the tree can provide a lot of shade, it can also be damaging if not planted in the proper area. Keep the plant away from walls, pavement or anything else it might spread into, as the tree has shallow roots and can easily cause damage.

Litter will happen if the branches—which are brittle—break or when the seed pods fall to the ground. You can help reduce the chances of the branches breaking if you can provide a spot with protection from winds and prune to form a strong branching structure.

Light

These trees do best in full sunlight, so choose an area that gets at least six full hours a day. Without adequate light, you might not see the showy red-orange flowers for which the royal poinciana is known.

Soil

A royal poinciana tree will grow in a variety of soil conditions, as long as there is drainage. Make sure that the soil dries out between waterings. The tree will tolerate clay, loamy, sandy, or gravelly soils. After planting, cover the soil around the tree—leaving some space near the trunk—with a 2-inch layer of mulch.

Water

Water the tree on a regular basis during the spring, summer and early fall. Keep the soil moist, but never soggy, until the roots become established. During the late fall months, gradually cut down on the water supply before stopping extra watering during the winter months when the tree goes dormant.

Temperature and Humidity

The royal poinciana tree is native to tropical forests, so it does well in warm, humid environments. It cannot tolerate temperatures below 45 degrees Fahrenheit. It's easily grown outdoors in parts of Florida, Texas, and Hawaii, but in colder states, the tree should be kept in a greenhouse, conservatory or on a closed porch.

Fertilizer

Give the tree a balanced liquid fertilizer for four to six weeks after planting and then two to three times per year for the first three years. Give an additional application in early spring and fall. Water the tree thoroughly after the soil has been fertilized.

Propagating

Seed germination and cuttings are used to propagate this tree. Seeds will need to be scarificed first to break open the seed coat and allow water to germinate the seed. It can take more than five years for a newly planted tree to bloom for the first time.

Pruning

It's important to prune royal poinciana trees to create a strong tree structure, as the limbs are susceptible to breakage in high winds. Around late March or early April, right before spring growth starts, prune any major branches that are half the diameter of the trunk or below 8 to 12 feet from the ground.

Common Pests and Diseases

Although royal poinciana trees don't have a lot of pests, some species of caterpillars may chew away on the leaves. However, it should not defoliate the entire tree. Additionally, spider mites can be an issue, particularly if the tree isn't in a humid environment. If you spot spider mites, increase the humidity or set the plant outdoors. Scale insects can also be an issue. They'll appear under the leaves, but can be removed with cotton swabs dipped in alcohol.

Phellinus noxious is a fungus that may cause the roots to rot. Choosing a spot with soil that drains well can help lessen the possibility that this fungus will invade.