A slender evergreen often reaching 50 feet tall and 15 feet wide, Serbian spruce is valued for its graceful shape. It bears glossy needles with silvery undersides. The two-inch cones provide winter interest to the landscape. They start as purple but age to reddish-brown. The tree's tolerance to drought makes it an adaptable specimen street planting or the yard. It belongs to the Pine family and is related to mugo pine (Pinus mugo), eastern white pine (Pinus strobus), and pitch pine (Pinus rigida).
|Common Name||Serbian spruce|
|Botanical Name||Picea omorika|
|Plant Type||Coniferous, needled, evergreen tree|
|Mature Size||40 to 60 feet; commonly 100 feet in the wild|
|Sun Exposure||Full sun to partial shade|
|Soil pH||Not fussy about soil pH; can be grown with a soil pH ranging from 5.6 to 9|
|Hardiness Zones||4b to 7a, USDA|
Serbian Spruce Tree Care
This slow grower is drought-tolerant, but only after it matures. Irrigate it regularly during its first year to help the roots become established. Even upon maturation, provide supplemental irrigation during periods of extreme heat, especially if you live in zone 7.
In the North, Serbian spruce grows best in full sun. In zone 7, it may perform just as well or better in partial shade.
Grow Serbian spruce in well-drained soil of average fertility.
The plant has average water needs.
Temperature and Humidity
Serbian spruce grows best in regions with cool summers, which is why it is not recommended for homeowners who live south of USDA zone 7. The United States Southeast has summers that are too hot and humid for Serbian spruce.
To feed Serbian spruce organically, back-fill with compost at planting time. Top-dress periodically with compost as the tree matures. Water the compost thoroughly into the soil.
Types of Serbian Spruce
Variations on the species plant are available as cultivars:
- Picea omorika 'Pendula': a weeping form; 12 to 15 feet tall, 2 to 3 feet wide
- Picea omorika 'Nana': a dwarf form for small spaces; 4 to 8 feet tall and wide
- Picea omorika 'Sky Trails': a weeping form with blue-green needles with contrasting white bands underneath
Serbian spruce does not need pruning to shape it, since it has a naturally graceful shape. The only pruning necessary will be to remove dead, damaged, or diseased limbs.
You can propagate Serbian spruce from a cutting. The best time to take the cutting is late summer or early fall. Take the cutting from the tip of a healthy branch. The cutting should be about four inches long.
Prepare a pot for planting by filling it with sandy loam and poking a hole in the middle with a pencil. Remove the needles from the bottom 2/3 of the cutting and make an angular cut at the very bottom. Dip this end of the cutting in rooting hormone and insert it into the hole you made. Keep the soil moist. Creating a "tent" over the pot with a plastic bag helps trap moisture. Remove the bag when roots have formed. Keep the pot indoors in indirect light for the winter. Transplant the tree outdoors in spring after the danger of frost has passed.
How to Grow Serbian Spruce Tree From Seed
You can also propagate Serbian spruce from seed. It may help to scar the outer coating of the seed to promote germination. These seeds need temperatures to cool down and warm up to trick them into believing winter is over and the growing season is about to begin.
Plant the seeds in fall 1/4 inch deep in a planting tray with moistened potting soil amended with peat moss and sand. Wrap this tray in a plastic bag and put it in the back of a refrigerator for 4 months. Gradually warm up the seeds by bringing the tray to a cool garage or cellar. As spring approaches, continue the process by bringing it outside on warm days. In early spring, after germination, let the seedlings harden off in their tray over four weeks. Give them at least 6 to 8 hours of sunlight. Plant them outdoors after all danger of frost has passed.
Serbian spruce is a cold-hardy tree. You don't need to take any measures to overwinter it unless you live north of zone four, in which case you can increase its chances of survival by adding mulch to add insulation from the cold temperatures.
Serbian spruce is susceptible to insect problems. One of the most common pest problems is aphids. This is especially true in landscapes where chemical insecticides have been used in the past. As soon as you detect aphids on the needles of your Serbian spruce, spray with the organic insecticide, Neem oil.
Prevention is the best borer control. It can be difficult to identify a borer infestation soon enough to save a tree. Keep your Serbian spruce vigorous and less likely to be attacked by borers by providing adequate irrigation and fertilizer.
Is Serbian spruce a good street tree?
Because it is tolerant of air pollution, it is a reasonably good street tree for some residential yards. However, it is intolerant of road salt and should be avoided in districts where roads are salted in winter.
How is Serbian spruce used?
Serbian spruce is sometimes used as a Christmas tree. As an evergreen, it also adds winter interest when grown outdoors.