Whether you lack outdoor space or don't want to put in the time and effort to maintain an in-ground garden, there are plenty of ways to enjoy flowers and greenery in small spaces like patios and terraces.
A patio garden requires more thought than simply placing a couple of plant containers by a chair. For a well-designed small space garden, you will need to consider things like framing, softening the edges, creating paths, and maximizing your patio's potential.
Framing Your Outdoor Garden Room
Creating a distinction between your patio or terrace and your lawn is how you turn your outdoor space into an outdoor room. You can accomplish this by outlining the patio with a border, building raised planters around the edge, or by creating an edge with containers. Here are some ideas for each.
- Borders: Having a border around your terrace lets you enjoy the best of both worlds. You have a true garden to putter in and you never have to leave the comfort of your living area. A border is narrow, but a lot can be accomplished in this small space. In addition to plants that spill onto the patio, like lady's mantle and geraniums, you can create clusters of height with ornamental grasses or small shrubs. If the border runs between the house and the patio, you might want to try your hand at espalier, growing a fruit tree trained to lay flat against the house wall. The heat of the house and the openness of the branches produces a considerable yield in a small space.
- Built-ins: Many patio designs have built-in flower boxes along the perimeter. They delineate the space and provide additional seating. More importantly, they provide an eye-level garden. You have all the advantages and control of container gardening as well as extra insulation for your plant's roots provided by brick or stone. Many plants will do well in these circumstances, but it's especially nice to have scented plants such as roses, heliotrope, gardenias, jasmine, and sweet peas.
- Containers: If you don't have an edge border or built-in boxes, you can always create the effect with containers. Use an entire row of matched containers, simulating built-ins, or clusters of different sizes and shapes, filled with a variety of plant material.
Any of these options will create a visual delineation between your living space and the openness of the rest of your property.
Softening the Hard Edges of a Patio or Terrace
Stone is beautiful, but on its own, it can look cold, hard, and uninviting. Two types of plants are especially useful in turning your patio or terrace into a welcoming retreat.
- Spillers: Plants that flow out onto the stone will automatically soften the hard edges. Light, airy foliage is especially good for this. Lady's mantle (Alchemilla mollis), love-in-a-mist (Nligella damascena), coreopsis, lavender, and ferns are good examples. Just be sure to choose plants based on your patio's sun exposure, because proximity to stone will only intensify the heat and their watering needs.
- Creepers: Unless your patio or terrace is paved, there are bound to be spaces between your stones. You will learn soon enough that weeds will readily grow there, so why not use the spaces to grow something more attractive? There are several low-growing plants that can be walked on. Thyme, sedum, scotch moss, and creeping Jenny (Lysimachia nummularia) are often used for this purpose. Don't try to fill every crack, though. Plants can become slippery when squished or wet and you should use care that heavy traffic areas are safe. But a few select spots will give your terrace a touch of Tuscany and a lived-in feel. You'll be surprised how quickly these plants will acclimate and find their own way around the patio.
Placing Plants Around a Patio Seating Area
The major consideration of using plants around seating areas is to be sure you leave enough space to get to them. You’ll want at least 3 feet on every side of a table for people to get into their chairs. And use some judgment when choosing plants. Consider their rate of growth and their mature size. Some plants can be trimmed back, but small trees get larger and plants with thorns should be kept away from seating areas and paths.
Creating Privacy and Height with a Patio Garden
Privacy on your patio or terrace can easily be accomplished with well-situated raised planters and containers, as discussed earlier. You should also consider creating some height in your plantings.
A trellis or latticework used as open fencing makes an ideal spot for a vine or climbing plants such as clematis, honeysuckle, or morning glories. Even cucumbers can be used to create an open wall that allows air to get through, but not prying eyes.
If your terrace is too sunny or warm, you also might want to consider some sort of pergola across at least part of it, which gives you one more place to plant. Climbing hydrangea, jasmine, magnolias, camellias, wisteria are good choices to grow on a pergola.
Another element to consider for privacy is sound. Adding a soothing sound, such as a water feature, rustling plants, or wind chimes, will help to soften other ambient noises like traffic from a nearby road.
With all of these elements in place, you'll have created a lovely terrace or patio garden that allows you to enjoy the outdoors without having to invest a lot of time, money, or effort.