The breeding season is an ideal time for birding. Knowing when bird mating season is at its peak can help birders plan to attract nesting birds to their backyard, visit spots to see rare species, or just enjoy the beauty of courting birds. Here's what you need to know about bird mating season.
Timing of Bird Mating Season
Birds do not mate for pleasure, only for procreation, and many male birds are sterile outside the breeding season. The exact timing of when bird pairs come together for successful mating varies by species, and the timing can evolve to give the resulting chicks the best chance of survival.
Factors that affect the bird mating season include:
- Geography: The farther north a bird’s breeding range is located, the later its mating season will begin. These birds might migrate earlier because they have greater distances to travel to reach their ideal breeding locations. They also might have shorter incubation or parenting periods to account for their shorter breeding season.
- Food: A greater availability of easily accessible food is essential for parent birds to provide adequate nutrition to their chicks. This is why birds migrate before the breeding season. Moving to a different area where food is abundant helps spread out their population, so they will have a better chance of properly feeding their young.
- Water: In dry deserts or other arid habitats, the sudden appearance of water through seasonal storms or flooding can trigger the mating season. In those habitats, plants have evolved to quickly bloom when water is available, and those plants provide the necessary food for birds to raise chicks. As a result, many desert birds have more flexible mating seasons.
- Care period: Some baby birds mature quickly while others require their parents’ care for weeks or months before they can feed and protect themselves. The more care a baby bird requires or the longer the incubation period is for the eggs, the earlier the mating season will be. This gives parents enough time to raise the chicks before environmental conditions worsen.
- Brood numbers: If a bird species raises multiple broods each year, the mating season typically begins earlier. That way, there is plenty of time for each brood to be cared for as the eggs are incubated and the chicks mature. Species that raise multiple broods might not always have a second or third brood if conditions are not favorable for the chicks to survive. Mortality rates are also often higher in later broods, and not all chicks will live.
- Nesting sites: Where a bird nests can affect the time it mates. Birds that build new nests each year often nest later in the season, so they have enough time to gather materials to create their nests. Birds that reuse old nests can mate earlier and still have a suitable location to raise their young.
How Do Birds Mate?
Signs of Mating Season
Spring is the typical mating season for most bird species. During that time, food sources are increasing and melting snows and spring rains provide plenty of water. Plus, there will be a long, temperate season for young birds to mature.
To pinpoint when the bird mating season is beginning, watch for:
- Warming temperatures and blooming flowers that show the change of seasons
- Birds claiming territory and becoming more aggressive toward intruders, particularly males
- The appearance of bright breeding plumage with fresh, clear markings
- Increased birdsong, which can help define territories and attract mates
- Bird courtship behavior, including elaborate display flights and other bonding
- Dissipation of large winter flocks or mixed foraging flocks as birds pair off with mates
- The collection of nesting materials and the beginning of nest-building activities
The nesting season can be several weeks long as birds claim territory, attract a mate, and raise one or more broods of chicks. However, the actual mating period might last only a week or two as birds become receptive to the act of copulation. The mating itself can be just a few seconds or minutes.
Birding During the Mating Season
The breeding season is one of the most popular times for birding. While birds are defending territories and attracting mates, they are colorful and visible for birders to see. It is also a time to see migrating species pass through your area.
Birders who are aware of the breeding season can plan when to put up bird houses, attract birds with nesting materials, and begin watching for the appearance of chicks. At the same time, birders should take appropriate steps to safeguard mating birds, such as minimizing the use of bird call recordings that could stress or distract birds. Discouraging feral cats and keeping bird houses safe will also protect breeding birds.
When birds mate is all about survival. Knowing when the bird mating season occurs and how to be a responsible birder during that time is a great way to help the chicks survive. And the more chicks that survive, the better successive breeding seasons will be as more birds take advantage of the conditions to start each new generation.