Kitchen Remodeling: A Overview

Mother lifting daughter in kitchen
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    Kitchen Remodeling

    Few home remodeling projects come with more benefits—and more headaches—than a major kitchen remodeling job. If you hire a general contractor (GC) to manage a major job that expands the kitchen footprint, costs can easily go into the six-figure range. If you have the courage to tackle the work yourself, the job may take many months to complete, and you may need to live without a kitchen for a good portion of that time. 

    But a gleaming new kitchen will make your home more liveable, and it will...MORE increase the equity value of your real estate like few other remodeling projects can do. A great new kitchen will be the focus of family life and can be the center of social gatherings. A fully remodeled kitchen is most certainly a project worth the time, money, and effort, and you can avoid being overwhelmed if you fully understand the steps that go into the process before you begin. 

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    Step 1: Assessing Needs, Wishes, Resources

    Mother lifting daughter in kitchen
    MoMo Productions/Taxi/Getty Images

    A great many kitchen remodeling projects end up disappointing a homeowner—or shocking them with the cost—simply because they did not spend the necessary time to determine what they wanted and what they could afford. 

    Wants and Needs

    Start by asking yourself what persistent problems you experience with your current kitchen. Is it a matter of too little space to cook effectively?  Too little space to store food and dishware? Do you lack dining areas? Are the appliances ineffective or too old? Or...MORE does the kitchen just make you wince because it is so dated and so ugly?

    Establish a prioritized list of things you would like in your new kitchen, ranked according to their importance. It's helpful to distinguish between those elements you absolutely need and those you simply want. 

    Reality Check

    Early on in your planning, confront the two-part reality of a kitchen remodeling project: the logistics of the work itself, and the expense involved. 

    If the work will be done by subcontractors managed by a general contractor, you will have strangers tracking through your house and making noise and mess for a matter of weeks or perhaps even a couple of months. If you plan to do the work yourself, the downtime for the kitchen will likely be much longer—and do you really have the time and DIY skills necessary to accomplish this?

    Also, consider the financial payback on a new kitchen. If you are planning to remain in your house for many years, a dream kitchen might be worth the $85,000 it will cost, since it will serve as a functional and attractive family space for decades. But if you are an empty nester who plans to downsize to a smaller home in the next five years, perhaps a surface-level kitchen renovation is really the more practical option. A kitchen is a highly personal space, and your idea of a dream kitchen may not be anything like the next owner's idea. Kitchen remodels return a good portion of their cost in improved home equity—but not all of it. A $100,000 kitchen may improve your home value by $50,000 to $75,000, but don't expect to get your full investment back. 

    Prepare for Compromise

    Right from the beginning of the planning stage, establish a mindset that is willing to look for ways to cut costs on your kitchen remodeling project.

    By far the easiest (but most expensive) way to remodel a kitchen will be to off-load most of the planning, design, and management of workers to a general contractor. But the GC comes at a significant cost, and you can save a lot of money if you are willing to serve as your own GC and hire and supervise individual subcontractors to do the hands-on work. Your cost savings will be greatly amplified if there are some of the tasks you are willing and able to tackle yourself. 

    Also be ready to compromise on the materials in your new kitchen. It is easy to get all dreamy-eyed about solid-walnut custom cabinets and Italian marble floor tiles, but you will find that there are stock cabinets with hardwood veneer and mass-produced porcelain floor tiles that will also look great. Is that commercial-grade gas range really necessary, or will a good quality consumer range do the job? Are lava-stone countertops at $250 per square foot really that much better than solid-surface countertops at $85 per square foot?

    If you're truly creative, you might even think about using reclaimed cabinets and other materials to create a vintage kitchen look that is both unique and inexpensive. 

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    Step 2: Designing and Planning

    White, modern luxury home showcase interior kitchen with clock
    Caiaimage/Charlie Dean / Getty Images

    With a realistic idea of what you need in a new kitchen and a mindset of determined flexibility, you can start to brainstorm and begin to hone a concrete, workable plan for your new kitchen. 

    5 Basic Kitchen Plans:  Start With Proven Success

    Why reinvent the wheel?  While you have a wide range of possibilities, utilize one of the five classic kitchen design plans. For ease of movement, all plans represent some form of that classic workflow model, the kitchen triangle.

    • The One-Wall Design
    • The...MORE Corridor Design
    • The L-Shape Design
    • The Double-L Design
    • The U-Shape Design

    In all likelihood, one of these classic kitchen design plans will be the logical choice for your new kitchen. From there, you can look at a number of resources to help develop actual plan drawings and blueprints for your kitchen:

    • Kitchen design software: Inexpensive computer design software helps you with the difficult task of space-planning.
    • Book-based design packages: Available at bookstores, these kits have cardboard punch-outs representing cabinets and appliances. Placing punch-outs on a kitchen grid helps you realistically view your available space.
    • Kitchen designers: Kitchen designers staffed at home improvement companies or at kitchen design stores typically design your kitchen free of charge. However, they will steer you to their own vendors and to their own work crews. Independent designers will have the most freedom and may give you the best product because they have fewer restrictions. However, they will charge you for their services, either by the hour or as a percentage of the project cost. 
    • General contractors: The same GCs who manage kitchen remodeling projects may be able to assist you in the early stages of planning the kitchen, although their design assistance will not get detailed until you hire them. But most GCs who are bidding on a job will offer suggestions and possibly even plan sketches as part of their proposals. Just talking to contractors can help you clarify your own plans. 
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    Step 3: Hiring Contractors. Or Not.

    Building Contractors
    CC-Licensed; Flickr user U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

    Whether you do have created your kitchen plan yourself or worked with a design professional, once you have settled on a kitchen layout and developed drawings, it is time to make the all-important decision on who you will hire to turn those ideas into reality. There are three options:

    • Hire a GC (general contractor). These are generally builder/construction firms who specialize in managing major projects from start to finish. They can range from small companies with two or three people, to a large...MORE firm with dozens of employees. In large firms, the commission charged by the GC ranges from 15 to 25 percent of the total job cost. Smaller GCs are often owner/operator business in which the owner may perform a good deal of the work himself, possibly one or two staff carpenters, then subcontract out specialized work, such as wiring, plumbing, and tile installation. An owner/operator contractor with a good track record is an excellent choice for a kitchen remodeling project since their overhead costs are usually much lower than larger firms. These smaller contractors usually do not charge a commission, since their costs are figured into the overall job estimates. 
    • Do it yourself. At the other end of the scale is doing all the hands-on work yourself. This is a practical alternative if you are a very experienced DIYer, fully knowledgeable in all the skills required, and if you have plenty of spare time to do the work. But this is not an option for the faint-of-heart, because kitchen remodeling is a big project. It is not uncommon for a DIYer tacking a major kitchen remodel to find themselves a full year into a project with the end still months away. A good DIYer, though, can cut the project costs in half by doing all the work. 
    • Hire your own subcontractors. A compromise strategy is to serve as your GC—finding, hiring and supervising the individual subcontractors (carpenters, plumbers, electricians, flooring pros, etc.) yourself. This can save you quite a bit of money over a GC-managed project, but it requires a good deal of effort to manage the workflow and supervise the various subcontractors. One advantage of this approach, though, is that you can choose to tackle some aspects of the job yourself to save money. for example, you can choose to do the demolition yourself, then hire carpenters to do the framing, wiring, and plumbing, then do the flooring and cabinet installations yourself.

    Building Permits

    At the point where you're ready to hire a general contractor or begin the work yourself, it's time to apply for permits. Permits must be obtained from different agencies. Your city or county may administer the electrical, plumbing, and building permits. Your water company may also need to permit any work relating to water supply and drainage. If a general contractor is handling the renovation, he will obtain all the necessary permits. If you are doing it yourself, start by calling your local city or county permitting agency.

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    Step 4: Preparing to Live Without a Kitchen

    Kitchen
    Johner Images / Getty Images

    Make contingency plans for meals during the time your kitchen is out of operation. With some kitchen remodels, your plumbing and appliances may be operational for some portions of the project. More often, though, your stove, sink, and other appliances will be disconnected and absent for at least a short time, or maybe even many weeks, as your kitchen is being remodeled. 

    Make arrangements for living without your kitchen for however many weeks it will be out of commission. You may be able to get...MORE by if you move a few appliances into another room and set up an informal kitchen for the duration. A recreation room or home bar with a sink can serve as a cooking and dining space for this time. If you cook up a number of meals in advance and store them in a freezer, you'll need nothing more than a microwave oven to reheat them for meals.

    This might be a time when you eat more meals at restaurants, or a time when you find yourself joining sympathetic friends and relatives for meals at their homes—invitations are likely if you offer to cook for them. 

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    Step 5: Demolition

    With all the preparation out of the way, the first real step is a noisy and messy one—and one that can be fun, as well. 

    Whether it's done by you or the general contractor's crew, removing the old appliances and tearing out the old materials is the first step on the road to the new kitchen. This can be hard physical work, but it is not particularly complicated unless the demolition involves removing load-bearing walls. 

    This may be a part of the project you choose to do yourself. If so,...MORE remember to wear safety gear and take precautions if there is any chance that lead-based paint or asbestos is present. These materials require special handling. And if you are doing the demolition yourself, you'll need to arrange for a roll-off dumpster or other means of hauling away the debris and any discarded appliances.

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    Step 6: Structural Build-Out

    Load Bearing Wall or Not
    Lee Wallender

    With demolition complete, a typical kitchen remodel begins in earnest with the contractor's carpentry crew performing whatever framing work is necessary for the project. Depending on your new kitchen's configuration, this may involve some very major construction tasks. Are you adding or replacing windows? Or removing windows to increase cabinet space? Taking down walls to open up the kitchen to the rest of the house? Even minor kitchen remodeling projects may need joists strengthened to...MORE support heavier appliances or built-ins such as a kitchen island

    Framing work is something many experienced DIYers can do themselves, working according to the building plans that were developed during the planning stages. 

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    Step 7: Plumbing, Wiring, and HVAC Rough-In

    Modern Kitchen Design Ideas
    Steven Miric / Getty

    After the framing work, the next step is for new or rerouted plumbing pipes, wiring, and HVAC duct-work to be run. This process is known as the mechanical rough-in phase, and it is normally done by licensed plumbers, electricians, and HVAC pros hired either by the general contractor, or by a homeowner serving that role.

    If you're doing the work yourself and learning as you go, this will be slow-going. Plumbing and wiring are not trades you learn overnight, and kitchens usually require a lot...MORE of new plumbing and wiring. The current code wiring requirements for kitchens may mean that several entirely new circuits need to be installed. The complexity of the work, and the inherent hazards if wiring and plumbing aren't done correctly means that all but the most skilled DIYers will want to subcontract this work out to pros, who can do the work with remarkable swiftness. 

    Plumbing Rough-In

    Unless the kitchen project involves merely replacing a sink, dishwasher, and refrigerator in the same locations, normally there will be some rerouting of water supply and drain lines to new locations. Even if the fixtures are remaining in the same place, this is a good time to update any old plumbing pipes—galvanized steel pipes can be replaced with PEX, for example. The plumbing changes may be quite complex, such as if you are moving a sink to a center kitchen island.

    When the plumbing rough-in is completed, it will receive the first of two inspections mandated by permit requirements. The inspector will review the installation while the wall surfaces are still removed to make sure it has been done according to code. If you have done this work yourself, it is your responsibility to arrange for the inspection. 

    Wiring Rough-In

    As complex as the plumbing may be, the electrical service upgrades for a large kitchen remodel may be even more sweeping. Modern kitchens have very heavy electrical loads and the code may require as many as seven circuits or more. To effectively power a large modern kitchen, your home should have at least 200-amp service. This means that many kitchen remodeling projects require that an electrician update the entire electrical service to the house.

    As the electrician runs the new circuits to the kitchen, he will likely abandon any existing circuit wiring in the kitchen in favor of running new wiring for all the kitchen circuits. sHere, too, the wiring rough-in installation will need to be reviewed and passed by the inspector before the project can move to the next phase. 

    HVAC Rough-In

    While not always necessary, any new HVAC ductwork required by the project is done at the same time that wiring and plumbing work is being completed. Installing sheet metal ductwork is usually done by an HVAC contractor who understands the physics of airflow and can position the new vent registers and cold air return registers in the most effective locations. 

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    Step 8: Finishing Walls and Ceilings

    Modern creative office kitchen interior.
    Nazar Abbas Photography / Getty Images

    With the next step, the kitchen will begin the transition from a battle-zone into something that looks like a kitchen. 

    Once the plumbing, wiring, and HVAC rough-ins have been completed and passed by the inspector, the walls and ceilings can be closed up. Exterior walls will be insulated with fiberglass batt to provide a buffer between the kitchen and inclement weather. With the wall cavities accessible, this is a good time to install high-quality insulation.

    Next, drywall is hung and the seams...MORE are taped and finished. Walls and ceilings are now primed and painted. If ceilings are being textured, the texture is now applied. 

    Insulating, installing drywall, and priming and finishing walls and ceilings are all tasks that homeowners can do themselves to save money. Be aware, though, that pros can do this work very quickly and are relatively inexpensive. 

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    Step 9: Laying Flooring

    Flooring installation is one of the last stages before cabinets, appliances, and fixtures are installed. It is normally saved until the end to prevent wear-and-tear on the new flooring. 

    If the project is being managed by a general contractor, his flooring subcontractors will now arrive to do the installation. The time required (as well as the expense) will depend on the type of flooring you've chosen. 

    • Sheet vinyl is the least expensive flooring choice and can usually be laid in one day....MORE DIYers can do this job, but because the labor time involved is not great, professional installation is not very expensive. 
    • Ceramic tile requires a base of cement backer board, to which tile is adhered with thin-set mortar. The tile is then grouted. Even with inexpensive tile, professional installation can be costly because of the extensive labor involved. DIYers able and willing to do this work can enjoy good cost savings.
    • Engineered wood feels like solid hardwood (its surface finish is real wood), but it is much less expensive. Tongue-and-groove planks are relatively easy for DIYers to install. 
    • Laminate flooring is a highly popular choice for kitchens because of the low price and ease of installation. Some forms are not recommended for moist locations such as kitchens. Laminate planks are easy for DIYers to install. 
    • Solid hardwood:  Hardwood is less popular because water can warp it if not quickly mopped up. However, with proper care, it is a viable choice for the kitchen. Installers can lay wood in an average-sized kitchen floor in three days. Installing hardwood flooring yourself is a very difficult DIY project. 
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    Step 10: Installing Cabinets and Countertops

    Install Countertops
    Ralph Lauren Home

    As the kitchen remodeling nears the end, finish carpenters will install the cabinets and countertops. 

    Cabinet-hanging requires patience. Your local cabinet supplier should have work crews who can hang your cabinets, usually over a period of a day or two. If you are sub-contracting the work, any competent carpenter can do this job. Or you can do it yourself, though you will need helpers to do so. 

    Although it looks easy enough, installing countertops is harder than it looks. Ceramic...MORE tile countertops are probably best installed by tile pros who may also be installing your ceramic tile floor. If you are using manmade materials, such as Silestone, Formica, or Corian, you may not even have the option of DIY installation, as these materials are difficult for DIYers to even buy. These solid-surface materials need to be fabricated and installed by authorized fabricators affiliated with the manufacturers. Granite, marble, and synthetic quartz countertops are so heavy that the best option is to have them installed by the shop that has fabricated them to your specifications. 

    Because countertops must be installed perfectly level and flat, good installation depends on base cabinets that are perfectly level and solidly anchored. 

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    Step 11: Installing Appliances, Plumbing, and Wiring Fixtures

    You're on the second-to-last lap—installation of appliances and the final connections of plumbing and lighting fixtures. Appliances are delivered and put into position, and the plumber returns to hook up the dishwasher and refrigerator water supply and to install and connect the sink and faucets. The electrician also returns to install light fixtures and connect switches and outlets, and the ductwork covers are installed. 

    Some or all of this work can be done by homeowners, but if pros were...MORE used for earlier stages of the wiring and plumbing work, the final connections are normally part of their contracted work. 

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    Step 12: Inspections and Last Touches

    With all the remodeling tasks complete, it's now time for the final touches:

    If you are working with a general contractor, do a walk-through and create a list of whatever details don't meet your complete satisfaction. Discussing this punch-list with your GC is a normal part of any remodeling project, and include things like trim molding joints that don't fit exactly, fixing scars and dings on the walls that occurred during appliance installation, faucet handle covers not yet put in...MORE place, as well as any major discrepancies you might notice. Now is the time to make sure you are satisfied with all the work that has been done. 

    At the end of the project, your permits will need to be "finaled"—that is, the various inspectors will need to visit your kitchen, review the work, and stamp your permit application "final." If you have worked with contractors, they normally arrange for the required inspections, but if you've done the work yourself, you are in charge of contacting the inspectors to final the permits. 

    A good contractor employs a housecleaner who specializes in building-related cleaning. If you're doing it yourself, give yourself a breather and hire a housecleaner to clean your kitchen.

    And now, your kitchen is finished! Enjoy the new space and convenience, and feel good about having made one of the better home renovating choices!