The most widespread tanager in the continental United States, the summer tanager is also one of the most brilliant with its fiery red plumage, perfect for any bird named "summer." Part of the Cardinalidae family but formerly and occasionally still classified in the Thraupidae bird family, these are bold, showy birds that are more shy than their stunning color would suggest. The better birders understand these tanagers, the better they'll enjoy every seasonal visit, and this fact sheet can help you learn all there is to know about summer tanagers.
- Scientific Name: Piranga rubra
- Common Name: Summer Tanager
- Lifespan: 4-6 years
- Size: 8 inches
- Weight: .9-1.1 ounces
- Wingspan: 11-12 inches
- Conservation Status: Least concern
Summer Tanager Identification
This bird's characteristic fiery plumage is a key field mark, but because males and females look different, it is important to recognize more than just color to properly identify the summer tanager. First note the large, thick, pale yellow bill with a relatively blunt tip, and the overall slender build with a relatively large head. While both males and females share these general shape characteristics, their plumage colors are markedly different.
Males are bright strawberry red overall with a black or blackish-gray wash on the primary flight feathers and a faint gray wash on the wings and tail tip. The extent of the wash can vary and these birds often appear solidly red, especially in bright sunlight. Their legs and feet are dark. Females, however, are mustard yellow or yellow-orange overall with a darker olive-green tinge on the upperparts, as well as the same blackish wash on the wingtips and tail tip. The eyes are dark for both genders.
Juveniles look similar to adult females, but as males mature, they develop splotchy or mottled yellow and red plumage. Because those color splotches can be very bold, it is easy to confuse these young birds for mature birds with unknown markings.
Summer tanagers have a sweet warbling whistle that lasts 15-30 syllables and is often repeated. A buzz or rasp may be heard at the end of the song. The typical call is a rapid "pic-pic-pic-a-tik" with slight changes in pitch.
Summer Tanager vs. Scarlet Tanager
These two tanagers can be confusing because both are brilliantly red. The summer tanager is completely red, however, with only a hint of gray on the wings and tail. The wings and tail on the scarlet tanager, however, are solidly black without any red. Females can look much more similar, but scarlet tanager females do have duskier, blackish wings and the bill is more gray than yellow.
Summer Tanager Habitat and Distribution
Summer tanagers are widespread through the southern United States in the summer months. These birds prefer moist deciduous forests with abundant oak trees, as well as riparian areas, and they are often spotted along forest edges.
These tanagers are complete migrants and the entire population moves seasonally. Their summer range stretches from the Ohio River Valley to southern Iowa, eastern Kansas, and Oklahoma, west to central Texas, southern New Mexico, Arizona, and southeastern California, and even into northern central Mexico. The species' winter range includes central Mexico south to the northern portion of South America as far as Peru and central Bolivia, as well as the Caribbean.
These are solitary birds but may be found in pairs during the breeding season, though females are much less noticeable in their duller plumage and may not be seen as easily. When agitated or feeling threatened, summer tanagers may raise their head feathers into a slight crest.
Diet and Feeding
Summer tanagers are generally insectivorous and will eat a wide variety of bugs, including moths, spiders, caterpillars, beetles, and other creepy crawlies. They will even eat stinging insects such as wasps and hornets, though they remove the stinger before swallowing the bite. When insects are scarce, these birds will also snack on berries and fruit.
While foraging, summer tanagers stay in the middle and upper levels of the forest canopy, often sallying from the same perch over and over to catch insects. This gives birders great observation and photography opportunities as the birds return to those predictable perches.
These are monogamous birds. The female builds a shallow, cup-shaped nest using bits of bark, grasses, and leaves, lining the cup with softer materials. The nest is positioned 10-35 feet above the ground, typically balanced on a tree limb far out from the tree's trunk.
Eggs and Young
The oval-shaped eggs are faint blue or greenish and have brown markings that may form a wreath or cap on the eggshell. There are three to five eggs in a typical brood. The female parent incubates the eggs for 11-12 days, and both parents feed the young chicks for 13-14 days until they are mature enough to leave the nest. A mated pair may raise one to two broods each year, with a second brood more common in southern populations where the nesting season is naturally longer.
On rare occasions, summer tanager nests may host brown-headed cowbird eggs, though they are able to recognize cowbirds and will chase them out of their nesting territory.
Summer Tanager Conservation
These tanagers are not considered threatened or endangered. They are vulnerable to habitat loss, however, as development continues to fracture their preferred forest and riparian habitats in both their breeding and non-breeding ranges. Habitat preservation and minimizing insecticide are good steps that can help preserve summer tanagers, particularly in the western part of their range.
Tips for Backyard Birders
Fairly shy, these are not common backyard birds but they will visit feeders that offer a peanut butter and cornmeal mix or different types of suet. Bird-friendly landscaping should include oak trees, berry bushes, and a water source, and birders should avoid trapping or spraying for the bees and wasps these birds eat. Backyard birders who also maintain beehives or plant nectar-rich flowers and other bee-friendly plants may see more summer tanagers in their yard.
How to Find This Bird
Visiting relatively undisturbed riparian habitats, such as areas around slower rivers or ponds, is essential to find the summer tanager. Watch for the bird higher in leafy trees, especially at edges where insects are abundant and foraging summer tanagers will flit back and forth from the same perch to hunt.
Explore More Species in This Family
There are many beautiful birds in the Cardinalidae family and similar bird families for birders to discover, including:
Don't miss any of our detailed bird fact sheets to learn more about all your favorite wild bird species!