Taxonomy and Botany
Plant taxonomy classifies the daphne plants treated in this article as Daphne x burkwoodii 'Carol Mackie'. The genus name thus doubles as the common name for the plant. 'Carol Mackie' is the cultivar name. Burkwood daphne shrubs are the result of a cross; the parents of this hybrid are Daphne cneorum (indigenous to Europe) and Daphne caucasica, a Caucasus native.
In the same genus -- and also commonly grown -- is D. odora, whose very species name is evocative of its fragrance. It blooms earlier than the plant under discussion here, but it is also less cold-hardy (zones 7-9).
Characteristics of the Plant
'Carol Mackie' plants are rounded shrubs that mature to about 3 feet tall, with a slightly greater spread. They bear fragrant, white to light pink tubular flowers in clusters; blooming time is generally in early May. The flowers will be succeeded by small red berries (drupes) if pollination occurs. Perhaps the outstanding feature of 'Carol Mackie' plants is their variegated foliage. Another burkwood hybrid with such leaves is 'Briggs Moonlight.' Despite being classified as "deciduous," one can understand why some refer to 'Carol Mackie' as "semi-evergreen": The daphne shrubs in a zone 5 garden will usually keep their leaves throughout the winter; the leaves do not become unattractive until late winter.
USDA Plant Hardiness Zones, Sun and Soil Requirements for Daphne Plants
Daphne shrubs can be grown in planting zones 4-8.
At the partial-sun end of this spectrum, you may experience superior blooming. But many people seeking shrubs for shade will gladly sacrifice some flowers in order to enjoy the bicolored leaves of this bush. Group them together with other acid-loving plants that have similar sunlight requirements.
Care, Uses for Daphne Shrubs
Daphne shrubs prefer moist soil. To keep the soil around them moist in summer (and to keep the roots cool), apply a 3-inch layer of mulch. Darrell Trout, a founding vice president of the Daphne Society, says that "perhaps as much as one-fourth of the old growth should be removed every year, after the plant has matured, treating them as you would Forsythias."
With their variegated foliage, they are attractive enough to stand alone as specimens. But these shrubs that bloom in early spring can also be grouped together in foundation plantings or hedges. Their need for excellent drainage makes them good candidates for rock gardens.
Warnings About Growing Daphne Shrubs
These are poisonous plants. Both the berries and leaves are listed as toxic in a number of sources and therefore should not be ingested; they may also irritate the skin. Moreover, daphnes are not the easiest of shrubs to grow.
They do not transplant well, and the grower is required to maintain a delicate balance between keeping the soil moist and keeping it well-drained.
Greek Mythology Connection? Not What You Think
In Greek mythology, the nymph, Daphne, fleeing Apollo, was transformed not into a daphne shrub, but into a bay laurel tree (genus name, Laurus, from the Latin). Bay laurel was, however, referred to in ancient Greek by the name, daphne. But, as noted in the Spice Pages, "In modern botanical terminology, Daphne denotes the genus of the toxic plant spurge laurel (Daphne mezereum)...."
Are you confused yet? Well, it gets even more confusing when you consider that mountain laurel is of a genus (Kalmia) distinct from either the true laurels or the true daphnes. Let's try to clear up the confusion somewhat:
We are dealing here with three distinct groups of plants:
- Daphne is the genus of the daphne shrubs discussed in this article and has its roots in Europe and Asia; the name is of Greek origin.
- Laurus (which is Latin) is the genus name of the true laurels, also Old World natives.
- Kalmia is a New World plant, commonly referred to as "mountain laurel."
But if the "daphne" shrub is not the plant in the Apollo-Daphne myth, what, then, is the origin of the plant's name? Folkard (Plant Lore, Legends and Lyrics, p. 310) suggests that, because many daphne shrubs "have Laurel-like leaves," modern botanists must have been comfortable with this transference between the laurels and daphnes. To put it another way, similarities in appearance made the two plants candidates for the same names available in the Greek and Latin name pool. Presumably, since the Greek genus name, Daphne had not been used to classify the laurels (the Latin, Laurus having been preferred) and was, therefore, still available, it was put to use when it came time to name the plants that we have come to know as "daphnes." Welcome to the sometimes convoluted -- but always fascinating -- world of plant-name origins.