Taxonomy and Botany of Virginia Creeper
Plant taxonomy classifies Virginia creeper (or "woodbine") as Parthenocissus quinquefolia. Engelmann's ivy (P. quinquefolia var. engelmannii) is an example, although this variety is sometimes listed as a cultivar (P. quinquefolia 'Engelmannii'). Another variation on the wild plant is 'Red Wall', but its fall foliage color can be disappointing, despite its promising name.
Plant Traits, Outstanding Feature
Grasping for support with its tendrils, Parthenocissus quinquefolia can climb as high as 50 feet. Its leaves, comprised of five leaflets, morph from their summer green into a fall foliage color ranging from reddish-orange to burgundy. This spectacular change occurring in autumn should earn the plant a spot on any list of the top shrubs and vines for fall color. The flowers are not much to look at, but Virginia creeper berries are a pleasing dark blue.
No doubt, its fall foliage color is the outstanding feature of the vine. Along with sumac shrub, another native in the eastern United States, Parthenocissus quinquefolia is one of the unsung heroes of the fall foliage season.
Name Origins: Virgins and Misnomers
Parthenocissus is a backward translation (and a rather lame one, frankly) from the English, with a healthy dose of poetic license.
Partheno- means "virgin" (as in "Virginia") and cissus translates as "ivy." Virginia creeper is, indeed, native to Virginia but is not a true ivy, so this part of the botanical name is misleading. Meanwhile, the species name, quinquefolia, refers to the five leaflets of which each of the leaves is comprised.
The second part of the common name is also misleading, in that the vine is a climber, not a creeping vine. This misnomer is the reason why it easily makes the list of ten plant names confusing to beginners.
Planting Zones, Sun and Soil Needs, Problems for Virginia Creeper
Although one of the vines tolerant of shade, this plant is more likely to achieve its best autumn color if grown in full sun. At the southern end of its range, giving it partial shade is not such a bad idea, though. Grow it in a well-drained soil.
The chief problem you will have in growing this vine is that it does tend to get powdery mildew. While this fungal disease does not harm the plant, it does take away from the beauty of its foliage.
Killing Virginia Creeper
Some folks dislike its aggressive growth habits and are intent on killing Virginia creeper. Since it grows so high, it is impractical to try killing Virginia creeper (a mature plant, that is) by spraying its leaves. Instead, cut the vine's trunk (near ground level), then apply the strongest concentrate of glyphosate (Roundup) you can buy to the fresh wound.
An organic method of killing Virginia creeper is to dig it out, but this is easier said than done, as the plant spreads via rhizomes.
Is Virginia Creeper Poisonous to Humans? Is It Invasive?
Since Virginia creeper is one of the plants mistaken for poison ivy, many people wonder if it is poisonous to humans in the sense that poison ivy is poisonous (that is, rash-causing). Reader, Paula Brooks has informed us that the sap flowing through Virginia creeper vines does contain oxalate crystals, which, for a small portion of the population, can irritate the skin. So you could get a nasty skin rash from brushing up against the plant, even though it is perhaps unlikely for the average person. Nor should you eat Virginia creeper berries.
Because it is native to eastern North America, Virginia creeper cannot, technically, be listed as an invasive plant there.
A plant that spreads out of control where it is native is said to be "aggressive," instead. But if it displays thuggish behavior in its native land, then it is a good bet that such a plant will be invasive if grown in regions to which it is alien.
Warnings, Uses in the Yard
If you live in eastern North America, you probably do not need to grow Parthenocissus quinquefolia in your yard, because chances are good that it is growing nearby anyway, perhaps along a road that you drive every day (where you can get your fill of it).
But if you live somewhere where Parthenocissus quinquefolia is not a native plant, perhaps you have considered growing it (many have). If so, keep some warnings about this vine in mind:
- Virginia creeper is a vigorous grower and may get out of hand if not kept in check with equal vigor. Therefore, it would not be a good plant choice for you if you seek low-maintenance landscaping.
- Sticky, disk-like appendages on its tendrils adhere to wall siding, making it difficult to remove. Removal could, in fact, cause damage to the wall. So do not grow this plant on walls unless you wish it to be permanent!
- Virginia creeper will climb trees and cast shade on their leaves, thus depriving them of needed sunlight. Do not allow it to grow on specimen trees!
But this plant does have viable uses in the landscape, and here are some possible solutions to the above problems (in order), should you wish to grow it in your landscaping:
- Grow Engelmann's ivy. This cultivar is considered less vigorous than the species plant. Some bronze color tends to creep into its otherwise red fall foliage, though.
- If you want the look of a wall covered with Virginia creeper, but without the risk, install a sturdy trellis near the wall and grow Parthenocissus quinquefolia on the trellis (keeping it well trimmed).
- Because you should not let Virginia creeper grow on your specimen trees, consider, instead, training it onto garden arbors, onto pergolas, or onto fences.
Another use for the plant is as a ground cover.
For, although this is a climbing vine, it will simply sprawl along the ground if not given a support on which to climb. When used as a ground cover on a hillside, it can be effective for erosion control.